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  Typhlonectidae

14 species in 5 genera

Typhlonectids are unique among caecilians in that they are secondarily aquatic. Members range from 140-750 mm total length. All 5 genera in this family are viviparous and produce juveniles that shed their gills early on. Members may be completely aquatic or semi-aquatic; all make burrows either at water level or underwater. Fetuses feed intrauterinely throughout gestation. Typhlonectids possess tracheal lungs and narial plugs, secondary zygokrotaphic skulls, and lack annular scales as well as secondary annuli. One member of this family, Atretochoana eiselti, is the largest extant lungless tetrapod (725 mm), and is known from only 2 specimens. This family is distributed in northern South America. The monophyly of this group is strongly supported through morphology, ecology, and geography. Some caecilian researchers have considered this family to be nested within Caeciliidae.
Typhlonectes natans
Photo by Henk Wallays
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Genus Atretochoana (1 species)
Atretochoana eiselti AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Chthonerpeton (9 species)
Chthonerpeton arii no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Chthonerpeton braestrupi no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Chthonerpeton exile no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Chthonerpeton indistinctum AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Chthonerpeton noctinectes no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Chthonerpeton onorei no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Chthonerpeton perissodus no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Chthonerpeton tremembe no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video
Chthonerpeton viviparum no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Nectocaecilia (1 species)
Nectocaecilia petersii no AmphibiaWeb account no photos no sound/video

Genus Potamotyphlus (1 species)
Potamotyphlus kaupii no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video

Genus Typhlonectes (2 species)
Typhlonectes compressicauda AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video
Typhlonectes natans no AmphibiaWeb account photos no sound/video


Citation: AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2016. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available: http://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed: 2016).

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