Caucasian Parsley Frog
© PENSOFT Publishers (1 of 2)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey
Pelodytes caucasicuslives in broad-leaved, mixed coniferous-deciduous and, rarely, coniferous mountain forests and the subalpine belt. It occurs on the shores and banks of ponds and streams with clear and cold semi-flowing and flowing water, sometimes 200-300 m away from water. The Caucasian Parsley Frog is a clearly psychrophilous amphibian, preferring shaded and cool conditions.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Hibernation occurs from September - November to March. Reproduction occurs between May and December, but usually between May and September, with the peak usually in June - July. Spawning occurs in shaded sites. Each female reproduces once during the season. This species is not an "explosive breeder", and the spawning season may be long even in the same water body. The males usually spend the day near the water body (under tree roots, in holes on the shore etc.) and at night return to breeding pools. Males arrive before females and vocalize in the evening and the first half of the night. The clutch contains 80-750 eggs which are deposited in a few small portions in the form of mucous sacs. The tadpoles may undergo metamorphosis 2-3 months later, but frequently the larvae overwinter and complete their metamorphosis during the following year, in April - July (usually May - June). Sometimes the tadpoles hibernate for the second time. Sexual maturity is attained at 2-3 years old or later. Maximum longevity in this species is estimated as 9 years.
Trends and Threats
Relation to Humans
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Written by Sergius L. Kuzmin (ipe51 AT yahoo.com), Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
First submitted 1999-10-03
Edited by Meredith J. Mahoney
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