AMPHIBIAWEB
Holoaden pholeter
family: Strabomantidae
subfamily: Holoadeninae
 
Species Description: Pombal JP, Jr, Siqueira CC, Dorigo TA, Vrcibradic D, Rocha CFD 2008 A third species of the rare frog genus Holoaden (Terrarana, Strabomantidae) from a montane rainforest area of southeastern Brazil. Zootaxa 1938:61-68
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Data Deficient (DD)
CITES No CITES Listing
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

 

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Description
Diagnosis: Large size for the genus (41.7-47.7 m SVL); very dark dorsal coloration and dark venter with a light abdominal blotch; large, wide head; large, protuberant eyes with rhomboid or round pupils; no tympanum; densely glandular dorsum; long slender limbs; no webbing; rounded digit tips that lack discs (Pombal et al. 2008).

Description: Adult females measure 44.6-47.7 mm SVL. Adult males measure 41.7 mm SVL. Very glandular dorsum. Large wide head with large protuberant eyes and rhomboid-shaped or round pupils. Indistinct canthus rostralis with a concave loreal region. Tympanum absent, but the supratympanic fold is present and glandular. Large tongue. Two short series of vomerine teeth, numerous premaxillary and maxillary teeth. Small toothlike process is present at the front of the lower jaw in a small single socket. Choanae circular. Slender arms. Forearms and fingers are long and slender. Fingertips are rounded with no webbing or fringe. Single subarticular tubercles under fingers, slightly elliptical to rounded. Legs are short and slender. Toes are long and slender and the toe tips are rounded with no webbing or fringe. Subarticular tubercles on toes are elliptical. Inner metatarsal tubercle is large and oval-shaped; outer metatarsal tubercle is large and somewhat rounded. (Pombal et al. 2008).

In life, the dorsal surfaces and flanks are purplish-brown. Ventral surfaces are slightly lighter and a white abdominal blotch is present. Viewed close-up, the dorsal surface are actually dark brown with many small light specks (Pombal et al. 2008).

In preservative, the dorsal surfaces and flanks are dark purplish-gray to nearly black (Pombal et al. 2008).

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil

 

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Endemic to Brazil. Known only from the type locality, on the eastern part of the Serra dos Órgãos, part of the Serra do Mar mountain range in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Occurs on montane rainforest slopes at elevations of 1200-1400 m ASL. Generally found on leaf litter near tree roots or in holes at the base of the tree (Pombal et al. 2008).

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Inhabits leaf litter or holes in tree bases. The "dens" inside the base of the tree, as well as the area within 10 cm fron the entrance had bare soil free of leaf litter. The male specimen was found in a shallow depression in this soil. Since the surrounding area had abundant leaf litter, it has been speculated that this species may "clean up" its shelter, which would be a unique behavior among frogs of Terrarana. When captured, individuals released a colorless, yet very sticky secretion which is believed to be a defense mechanism (Pombal et al. 2008).

Female specimens contained eggs that were large and unpigmented. This species may have direct development, similar to Holoaden bradei (Pombal et al. 2008).

Comments
The specific epithet pholeter is a Greek word meaning "one who lurks in a hole" (Pombal et al. 2008).

References

Pombal, J. P. Jr., Siqueira, C. C., Dorigo, T. A., Vrcibradic, D. and Rocha, C. F. (2008). ''A third species of the rare frog genus Holoaden (Terrarana, Strabomantidae) from a montane rainforest area of southeastern Brazil.'' Zootaxa, 1938, 61-68.



Written by Stephanie Ung (stephanieung AT berkeley.edu), UC Berkeley
First submitted 2009-11-05
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2010-04-27)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2010 Holoaden pholeter <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/7215> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jun 25, 2017.



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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 25 Jun 2017.

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