© 2014 Dr. Joachim Nerz (1 of 55)
Head is longer than broad; rectangular when viewed dorsally, truncated when viewed laterally. Eyes laterally placed. Vomeropalatine teeth extending posteriorly to a point near corners of mouth; run parallel then diverge. Nostrils anteriorly placed, distance from each other is less than their distance from eyes. SVL length is approximately three times distance from anterior point of snout to gular fold. Digits long and without webbing; third finger longest, third and fourth toes nearly equal in length. Fingers and toes slightly contact one another when laterally adpressed. Tail laterally compressed; dorsal and ventral fins are parallel and taper at posterior end. Smooth vertebral ridge from neck to tail, running continuous with dorsal fin ridge. Parotoid gland is large, compressed, and almost continuous with a dorso-lateral glandular ridge, which is cut by transverse grooves into a series of bead-like glands; ventro-lateral glandular ridge also present from axilla to groin. Circular gland also present at the antero-dorsal insertion point of the thigh between the two previously mentioned glandular rows. Males are much more glandular during breeding season. Has rugose skin. Dorsum black, sometimes brownish-black, and may sometimes contain small yellow spots on the back along the dorso-lateral glands (Thorn and Raffaelli 2001). Ventral color is brick red, vermilion, carmine, with variable black mottling. Stejneger (1907) describes specimens collected by Dr. Hugh M. Smith from Kiusiu and Shikoku with a black or blackish green dorsum; blood red with dark green mottling or symmetrical streaks ventrally; and in some specimens back is lighter green and sides of tail steel blue. Although most of the specimens look alike, their variation comes from their ventral patterns (Stejneger 1907).
Sexual dimorphism: Thorn and Raffaelli (2001) describe sexual dimorphism in this species. Males are on average smaller than females. Average length of 20 males of Hiroshima: 86.5 mm, average length of 20 females of Hiroshima: 104 mm. Males contain a “filament” at the end of the tail and skin is less rugose. Blue-purplish coloration can be found on the tail, belly, and other parts of male’s body during the breeding season.
Larvae have limbs with 2 digits and reach a total body length of 45-55 mm (Thorn and Raffaelli 2001) .
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Kawamura, T. (1956). ''Isolating mechanisms in Japanese amphibians.'' Population Genetics. T. Komai and K. Sakai, eds., Baifu-Kan, Tokyo, 143-162.
Sawada, S. (1961). ''A local variation of the mating behavior in the Japanese newt, Triturus pyrrhogaster.'' Zoological Magazine, 70(10), 20-25.
Sawada, S. (1963). ''Studies on the local races of the Japanese newt, Triturus pyrrhogaster Boie. I. Morphological characters.'' Journal of Science, Hiroshima University, B(21), 135-165.
Sawada, S. (1963). ''Studies on the local races of the Japanese newt, Triturus pyrrhogaster Boie. II. Sexual isolation mechanisms.'' Journal of Science, Hiroshima University, B(21), 167-180.
Stejneger, L. H. (1907). Herpetology of Japan and Adjacent Territory, United States National Museum Bulletin 58. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C..
Thorn, R. and Raffaelli, J. (2001). ''Genera Cynops.'' Les Salamandres. Societé Nouvelle des Editions Boubée, Paris, 305-313.
Written by Raul E. Diaz (lissamphibia AT gmail.com), AWeb Team
First submitted 2003-11-19
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2007-12-06)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2007 Cynops pyrrhogaster: Japanese Newt <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/4245> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Apr 30, 2017.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2017. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 30 Apr 2017.
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