This species is known from near Bundibugyo in Semliki Valley in western Uganda, at the foot of the Ruwenzori Mountains from Djuma and Orientale, Mayimbili (DRC) (Greenbaum and Kusamba 2010, Evans et al. 2011). The altitudinal range is from 700-1,200 m asl. Its range, herein taken as a proxy for extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 4,586 km
Habitat and Ecology
It is assumed to be a principally aquatic species in lowland rainforest. However, the type locality is a pool in a banana plantation. This species is known to live together with Xenopus pygmaeus (Evans et al. 2011, Tymowska and Fischberg 1973). It appears that, like X. fraseri, it can survive in degraded habitats, provided that the pools which it requires for breeding in are shaded.
It is a very poorly known species. Recent collectors have commented that it is rare within the area it is distributed (E. Greenbaum pers. comm. May 2012).
There is very little direct information on threats to this species. It may not withstand complete opening up of its habitat, and it is likely also to be harvested locally for human consumption.
It is not know from any well protected areas. More information is required on the distribution and influence of habitat change on this species.
Uniquely among vertebrates (except Xenopus longipes), this is a dodecaploid species, and it is therefore of considerable conservation interest. It was probably formed by both hybridization and polyploidisation (Loumont and Kobel 1991).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Xenopus ruwenzoriensis. In: IUCN 2014