Aplastodiscus callipygius is a large treefrog (males SVL 40 – 51 mm) that belongs to the A. albosignatus species group (Cruz and Peixoto 1984). The snout is pointed in dorsal view, head broader than long. Vomerine teeth are present. Eyes large and prominent. Large vocal sac in male. Tympanum distinct. The calcaneous appendix is large. Cloacal region with large granules, without a flap. The general dorsal color is green, as well as the muscles and bones.
The tadpole was described by Gomes (1996): body oval in dorsal view, nares reniform, spiracle sinistral, vent tube dextral, caudal muscle well-developed, oral apparatus ventral, LTRF 2(2)/4(1), a single layer of marginal papillae, submarginal papillae present.
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil
This species is known from the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, in the type locality in the Serra da Bocaina, São José do Barreiro-SP (1,600 m a.s.l.), Campos do Jordão-SP, Itamonte-MG (1,800 m), Camanducaia-MG (1,500 m) and Itatiaia-RJ (1,800 m) southeastern Brazil (Cruz and Peixoto 1985, Gomes and Peixoto 1997). A. callipygius lives near forest streams and rivulets in primary forests and old secondary growth (Carvalho-e-Silva and Cruz 2004).
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Males of Aplastodiscus callipygius call at night from September through February, from the muddy margins of streams and rivulets inside primary forests; the oviposition takes place in constructed underground basins (reproductive mode 5 of Haddad and Prado 2005). Gomes (1996) found males calling from rock crevices. The advertisement call was described by Abrunhosa et al. (2005): it has a mean duration of 0.3s, and an intercall time interval of 2.8s. The dominant frequency corresponds primarily to the fundamental frequency (about 0.8kHz) but sometimes to the third harmonic (about 2.4kHz).
The tadpoles are benthic and can be found in narrow streams, with clay bottoms. Newly metamorphosed froglets are 21 mm in SVL and have some black spots on the dorsum (Gomes 1996).
Defense strategies include body lifting, distress calls and camouflage (Haddad et al. 2008).
Trends and Threats
Fairly common but declining. Its range is within several protected areas, such as the Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina, at São José do Barreiro-SP, Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão-SP and Parque Nacional de Itatiaia-RJ (Carvalho-e-Silva and Cruz 2004).
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Subtle changes to necessary specialized habitat
The name is given in allusion to the cloacal ornamentation.
Abrunhosa, P.A., Pimenta, B.V.S., Cruz, C.A.G., and Haddad, C.F.B. (2005). ''Advertisement calls of species of the Hyla albosignata group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).'' Arquivos do Museu Nacional, 63, 275-282.
Carvalho-e-Silva, S. P. and Cruz, C. A. G. (2004). Aplastodiscus callipygius. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 14 September 2009.
Cruz, C. A. G. and Peixoto, O. L. (1984). ''Espécies verdes de Hyla do complexo ''albosignata'' (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).'' Arquivos da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, 7, 31-47.
Gomes, M. R. (1996). Girinos de espécies de Hyla do grupo ''albosignata'' (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae). Master's thesis, Departamento de Zoologia, UFRJ-MN.
Gomes, M. R. and Peixoto, O. L. (1997). ''Hyla callipygia – Distribution extension.'' Herpetological Review, 28, 92-93.
Haddad, C. F. B., Toledo, L. F., and Prado, C. A. (2008). Anfíbios da Mata Atlântica – Atlantic forest amphibians. Editora Neotropica, São Paulo.
Haddad, C. F. B., and Prado, C. P. A. (2005). ''Reproductive modes in frogs and their unexpected diversity in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.'' BioScience, 55, 207-217.
Written by Diogo Borges Provete (dbprovete AT gmail.com), Universidade Estadual Paulista (SJ do Rio Preto)
First submitted 2009-01-27
Edited by Kellie Whittaker (2009-09-13)
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