This species is known from Manombo Special Reserve, in the Fianarantsoa Province of southeast Madagascar. The two known sites are separated by a straight-line distance of approximately 1 km. This is a poorly-surveyed region, so it is not known whether the species is more widespread or not. However, it is likely that the range has contracted significantly over the last 50-100 years as much of the coastal forest has disappeared during that time. It is a lowland species, having only been recorded below 50 m asl (M. Vences pers. comm. 2010). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 89 km2.
Habitat and Ecology
This is an arboreal frog known from lowland rainforest, but little is known about its ecology and habitat requirements although it is likely to be dependent on forest. As with other congeners, it is presumed to breed by larval development in water-filled tree holes.
This frog appears to be very common within its small range (Vences et al. 2010). However, due to ongoing declines in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
There is very little remaining littorial forest in southeast Madagascar, all of which is subject to ongoing deforestation for timber and charcoal production, subsistence agriculture, livestock grazing, regular burning to maintain cattle pasture, expanding human settlements, and mining activities. Primary forest is continuous within the Special Reserve, although it is subject to regular disturbance from cyclones and can appear degraded (M. Vences pers. comm. December 2010). It is unknown whether this frog is tolerant of anthropogenic habitat modification or degradation.
This species is found in Manombo Special Reserve, which is already quite degraded but reasonably well-protected; it is along a major road and heavily impacted by cyclones which some years ago destroyed a large part of the remaining forest in the reserve (M. Vences pers. comm. March 2016).
Improved habitat protection of lowland forest is required, including inside the Special Reserve, because so little forest is left (M. Vences pers. comm. March 2016).
More research is needed into the extent of its range population trends, threats and its ability to tolerate disturbance to its habitat. Additional surveys of the region are urgently needed to clarify the actual distribution of the species.
Red List Status
Critically Endangered (CR)
Listed as Critically Endangered because it is known from a single location, it has an EOO of 89 km2, and there is ongoing habitat loss and degradation in the coastal forests of southeastern Madagascar.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2016. Anodonthyla theoi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T190943A68525895. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T190943A68525895.en .Downloaded on 19 January 2019