This frog is known from two sites in Ranomafana National Park in eastern Madagascar: Maharira and Zahamalaza (C. Hutter pers. comm. November 2014) where it has been recorded between 900 and 1,200 m asl (Vences et al. 2010, C. Hutter pers. comm. November 2014). It may occur more widely inside the park at suitable elevations and outside the reserve in the few remaining forest fragments, but the extent of suitable habitat is unknown (M. Vences pers. comm. December 2010). Because of this, for the purposes of this assessment, its range has been mapped to the boundaries of the National Park and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 824 km2. As such it is thought to occur in two threat-defined locations: one in the Park and one outside. However, the extent of the species' distribution is unknown and threats do occur in Ranomafana National Park but are sporadic, suggesting there may be additional locations, but no more than 5 due to the suspected small range of the species.
Habitat and Ecology
This is a forest dependent species, which is apparently restricted to high elevations (Vences et al. 2010). Eggs are laid and non-feeding tadpoles develop in water-filled tree holes (M. Vences pers. comm. December 2010).
Available information suggests that this species occurs in highly localized populations, being common where it occurs but absent from surrounding areas (Vences et al. 2010). Due to ongoing habitat loss the species' population is suspected to be decreasing.
Unprotected forest outside Ranomafana National Park, and in the highlands of Madagascar generally, are at very high risk of deforestation risk due to subsistence agriculture, timber extraction, charcoal manufacturing, invasive spread of eucalyptus, livestock grazing, regular burning to maintain cattle pasture, expanding human settlements, and a recent increase in artisanal small-scale mining; and there is some encroachment of these activities in the National Park (M. Vences pers. comm. December 2010, F. Glaw pers. comm. November 2014).
The only known population of this species occurs within Ranomafana National Park (Vences et al. 2010), which is presently well-managed but is potentially at risk if political instability weakens enforcement (M. Vences pers. comm. December 2010). In order to ensure the persistence of this species, current management practices within Ranomafana should be maintained (M. Vences pers. comm. December 2010).
Further research is required to better understand the species' population size, distribution and trends.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence is limited to 824 km2, it occurs in fewer than five threat-defined locations, and there is ongoing decline in the quality and extent of its habitat, despite there being some level of habitat protection within the boundaries of Ranomafana National Park in eastern Madagascar.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2015. Anodonthyla emilei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T190941A1961657. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T190941A1961657.en .Downloaded on 22 January 2019