This species is known from between 647-2,298 m asl in Khammouan and Bolikhamxay Provinces in southeastern Lao PDR (Stuart et al. 2005), as well as Thua Thien-Hue, Da Nang (Stuart et al. 2005), Quang Nam, Kon Tum, and Gia Lai provinces in central Viet Nam (J. Rowley unpubl. data). These are unlikely to represent the actual limits of the species' range as similar habitat and elevations to those in its known localities occur in adjacent parts of both Lao PDR and Viet Nam, as well as into northeastern Cambodia. Further surveys in these areas are likely to uncover its presence there, therefore its range has been projected beyond known sites to include these areas of suitable habitat. This species' extent of occurrence (EOO) is 61,427 km2, which consists of 11 threat-defined locations.
Habitat and Ecology
This species is associated with montane evergreen forest and has mostly been observed on rocks and among herbaceous vegetation adjacent to still to slowly-flowing stream sections (Stuart et al. 2005, J. Rowley unpubl. data). Males have been observed calling from above the ground on leaves or stems during both July and October in Viet Nam, during which time females were observed on rocks underneath (Stuart et al. 2005, J. Rowley unpubl. data). Presumably the species' eggs and larvae develop in streams, as with other Odorrana, however this has not yet been observed. Habitat throughout much of this species' range is undergoing a continuing decline in quality and extent due to the effects of expanding agriculture (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Sodhi et al. 2009, Meyfroidt et al. 2013), and the species has been observed in habitat disturbed by a cyclone (J. Rowley unpubl. data).
Very little is known about the size of this species' population; it has been detected in a number of surveys (Stuart et al. 2005, J. Rowley unpubl. data), but further surveys are needed to determine its relative abundance. Deforestation continues to affect habitat in the species' range (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Sodhi et al. 2009, Meyfroidt et al. 2013) and is very likely causing declines.
Habitat loss and degradation due to the effects of rapidly expanding agriculture is an ongoing threat to biodiversity throughout Southeast Asia (Sodhi et al. 2009). This is a particularly pressing threat in the Central Highlands of Viet Nam; large areas of forest are converted to agricultural land to grow cash crop plantations (e.g. rubber, coffee and tea) (Meyfroidt and Lambin 2008, Meyfroidt et al. 2013). Recent satellite imagery reveals areas of land cleared for agriculture throughout parts of this species' range. The species is probably threatened to some extent by habitat loss associated with these processes, however its presence in habitat damaged by large storm events (J. Rowley unpubl. data) may indicate some level of tolerance to disturbance.
This species is known from Xe Sap National Biodiversity Conservation Area in Lao PDR (Stuart et al. 2005), and from Bach Ma (Stuart et al. 2005) and Kon Ka Kinh National Parks as well as Ngoc Linh and Ba Na Nature Reserves in Viet Nam (Stuart et al. 2005, J. Rowley unpubl. data). A number of other protected areas are also included in its predicted range; it very likely occurs in some of these also.
Addressing the lack of data is the first step towards ensuring this species' long-term persistence; further research on its true distribution, ecology, threats, and the size and trends of its population would inform conservation decisions.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern as this species is widespread, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 61,427 km2, which represents 11 threat-defined locations.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Odorrana khalam. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T61871A136513288. .Downloaded on 19 November 2018