Pseudophilautus procax
family: Rhacophoridae
subfamily: Rhacophorinae
Species Description: Manamendra-Arachchi K & Pethiyagoda R 2005 The Sri Lankan shrub-frogs of the genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Ranidae:Rhacophorinae), with description of 27 new species. Raffles Bull Zool Suppl. 12:163-303.

© 2010 Dr. Peter Janzen (1 of 14)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Critically Endangered (CR)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Sri Lanka


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known from only one threat-defined location in Morningside Forest Reserve in the Rakwana Hills, in the Sinharaja area of south-western Sri Lanka, at 1,060 m asl (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda 2005). It is probably restricted to this area, which is comprised of a single large forest remnant embedded in a deforested matrix. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 8 km2, which is also taken as a proxy for area of occupancy (AOO). 

Habitat and Ecology

It is a forest habitat specialist, found near streams and marshy areas in closed-canopy cloud forest, including forests disturbed by cardamom plantations. At night, males perch up to about two meters above ground, on leaves, from which they vocalize (Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda 2005). It breeds by direct development and is not dependent on water.


It is common in suitable habitat. A recent survey produced observations of eight individuals over a two-hour period (M. Meegaskumbura pers. comm. 2014). There are no data to indicate population declines.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The habitat of this species is threatened by the expansion of tea and cardamom plantations, the collection of wood, illegal mining, fires, expanding human settlements, and agro-chemical pollution (Surasinghe and Jayaratne 2006).

Conservation Actions

It is found only in the Morningside Forest Reserve. This area receives some level of government protection, but is not an official conservation area (Janzen and Bopage 2011, R. Pethiyagoda pers. comm. 2014). While the government has purchased much of the land around Morningside, there is still pressure from land use within the reserve; a tea/cardamom plantation operates at the centre of the reserve and there is illegal clearing of understory to establish small parcels for cardamom cultivation (R. Pethiyagoda pers. comm. 2014). There is need for improved protection of the area, and incorporation of Morningside into the contiguous Sinharaja World Heritage Site would help prevent future loss of remaining forest habitat (R. Pethiyagoda pers. comm. 2014). Research is needed to better understand its life history, population status and current threats.

Red List Status

Critically Endangered (CR)


Listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) are estimated to be 8 km2, all individuals are in a single threat-defined location, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in southwestern Sri Lanka.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Pseudophilautus procax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T58890A60795712. .Downloaded on 19 January 2019


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