This species is known from the Sierra de San Luis, in Falcón State, Venezuela, where it has been recorded from 1,150-1,500m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
It occurs on vegetation in cloud forest. Some individual males have been observed calling in slow-moving water, and the larvae probably develop in water.
The most recent specimens were collected in 1992, and no additional specimens have been found since then (although this may be due to a lack of fieldwork within its range).
The habitat of the species is under intense pressure from agriculture and livestock farming, even within Parque Nacional Juan Crisóstomo Falcón. The species is also used in local medicinal use for the preparation of treatments against dermal herpes.
Although it occurs in Parque Nacional Juan Crisóstomo Falcón, this area is poorly managed for conservation and is in urgent need of more effective management. Education and awareness of the local people regarding the use of this species is recommended. Further survey work is also needed to determine the current population status of the species.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat, and in the number of mature individuals.
Abraham Mijares, Enrique La Marca 2004. Rhinella sclerocephala. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54757A11200370. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54757A11200370.en .Downloaded on 20 January 2019