This species occurs on the Pacific versant of Mexico from the Chimalapas region in south-eastern Oaxaca south through Chiapas to extreme western Guatemala, at elevations of 1,000-2,000m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
This species is closely associated with streams, which provide breeding habitat, in cloud forest; it also occurs in pine-oak (broadleaf) forest, and does tolerate moderate forest disturbance.
It is uncommon but still present in one Oaxaca locality, with no evidence of a decline. In Chiapas, it has declined and is now rare, though it still persists. Apparently, it is rare in Guatemala, as recent expeditions within its range have not recorded this species, indicating a decline there also.
The major threat to this species has been the loss and fragmentation of suitable forest habitat as a result of livestock ranching and agricultural activities, and wood extraction. Since this is a montane, stream-breeding bufonid, it is possible that it may be affected by chytridiomycosis.
It occurs in Reserva de la Biósfera La Sepultura and Reserva de la Biósfera El Triunfo, but further protection of the remaining habitat in the range of this species is needed. In view of the severe risk of chytridiomycosis, the status of this species should be closely monitored and ex-situ populations should be established if chytrid is shown to be a threat.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat and in the number of mature individuals.
Manuel Acevedo, Luis Canseco-Márquez, Antonio Muñoz Alonso 2004. Incilius tutelarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54785A11190498. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54785A11190498.en .Downloaded on 19 January 2019