This species is known from two localities in northern Oaxaca in the Sierra de Juárez in Mexico, and another allopatric population has been recorded in the Sierra Mixe, south-central Oaxaca, Mexico; additional survey work is likely to result in its discovery at additional locations. The type locality is at 1,570m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
It appears that this species is confined to high elevations covered with primary cloud forests and lowland rainforest beneath the cloud forest. It breeds in permanent streams.
There is no information available on the population status of this species.
The main threats are the fragmentation and disturbance of the cloud and rainforest habitat, which results in the disappearance of streams and a decrease in the humidity of the leaf-litter.
The range of the species is not within any protected area, and only the preservation and restoration of cloud forest patches in the Sierra de Juárez and the Sierra Mixe can guarantee the preservation of suitable conditions for the survival of this species. Further survey work is necessary to determine the current population status of this species.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in northern Oaxaca.
Georgina Santos-Barrera, Luis Canseco-Márquez 2004. Incilius spiculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54762A11185646. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54762A11185646.en .Downloaded on 19 November 2018