Incilius spiculatus
family: Bufonidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Mexico


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known from two localities in northern Oaxaca in the Sierra de Juárez in Mexico, and another allopatric population has been recorded in the Sierra Mixe, south-central Oaxaca, Mexico; additional survey work is likely to result in its discovery at additional locations. The type locality is at 1,570m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

It appears that this species is confined to high elevations covered with primary cloud forests and lowland rainforest beneath the cloud forest. It breeds in permanent streams.


There is no information available on the population status of this species.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The main threats are the fragmentation and disturbance of the cloud and rainforest habitat, which results in the disappearance of streams and a decrease in the humidity of the leaf-litter.

Conservation Actions

The range of the species is not within any protected area, and only the preservation and restoration of cloud forest patches in the Sierra de Juárez and the Sierra Mixe can guarantee the preservation of suitable conditions for the survival of this species. Further survey work is necessary to determine the current population status of this species.

Red List Status

Endangered (EN)


Listed as Endangered because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 5,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in northern Oaxaca.


Georgina Santos-Barrera, Luis Canseco-Márquez 2004. Incilius spiculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54762A11185646. .Downloaded on 20 January 2019


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