This species is known from the highlands between the Río Motagua in Guatemala and the Río Chamelecón in Honduras, at 30-1,370 m asl. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be 4,069 km2.
Habitat and Ecology
It inhabits lowland and premontane wet forest, living along small tributaries, especially of the Río Motagua. It is often found sitting on low vegetation, sometimes on the banks of streams. It breeds by direct development and is not dependent on water for breeding. It occurs primarily in forest habitat; however, one individual was found in a coffee plantation.
It had disappeared from some sites above 900 m asl in Honduras and much of the Honduran portion of the range is badly deforested; it was still common in 1998 in streams at 30-330 m asl in extreme northwestern Cortés Department in Honduras. It is not known if declines are ongoing; however, the species is regularly encountered in Cusuco National Park in Honduras (J. Kolby pers comm. 2014). It is uncommon in Guatemala. Multiple survey trips within the species range in Guatemala have produced no recent records (C. Vásquez-Almazán pers. comm. 2014). It is restricted to remnant forest habitat throughout its range, and there is lack of habitat connectivity between known sites attributed to the inhospitable nature of the surrounding agricultural matrix; therefore, it is assumed that the population is severely fragmented (C. Vásquez-Almazán pers. comm. 2014).
Serious habitat degradation is taking place due to agriculture, livestock, logging and human settlement. These threats do not account for the high-altitude declines seen in this species, which could be linked to chytridiomycosis. However, assays were conducted for individuals in Cusuco and none were infected (Kolby et al. 2010). Use of agrochemicals and illegal logging by communities within and around the Sierra Caral protected area as well as illegal logging within Parque Nacional Cusuco may represent threats to this species (J. Kolby pers. comm. 2011, C. Vásquez-Almazán pers. comm. 2014).
It is found in Cusuco National Park (Townsend et al. 2006). One locality in Honduras is on the edge of Cerro Azul National Park. In Guatemala, a protected area was recently established (2012) in the Sierra Caral (CONAP 2014). However, site management strategies are needed to eliminate illegal deforestation that has occurred in some protected areas and to prioritize restoration activities that could restore habitat connectivity. Surveys are needed to determine where other remnant subpopulations might occur, what their status is and how they could be better protected. Further research is necessary to determine whether chytrid is a real threat, as is monitoring of the areas where declines had been previously observed.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,069 km2, and its population is likely severely fragmented based on its occurrence being restricted to isolated fragments of natural habitat throughout its range. As some of the protected areas where it occurs are experiencing habitat degradation, and there is ongoing forest loss throughout the rest of its range, the extent and quality of its forest habitat in eastern Guatemala and western Honduras is declining.
This species was previously included in the genus Eleutherodactylus (Crawford and Smith 2005).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2014. Craugastor charadra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T56506A54366789. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T56506A54366789.en .Downloaded on 14 November 2018