Limnonectes nitidus
family: Dicroglossidae
subfamily: Dicroglossinae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Malaysia


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known from the Cameron Highlands and Fraser's Hill of Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. It is also known from Genting Highlands in Pahang state and Gunung Telapa Buruk in Negeri Sembilan state, which represent records that were unintentionally omitted from the 2004 assessment (K.O. Chan pers. comm. January 2018). Other records, such as those reported by Berry (1975, as Limnonectes laticeps) are uncertain and may be attributable to L. tweediei (Dring 1979, K.O. Chan and E. Quah pers. comm. January 2018), thus they are not included in this assessment. It occurs between 900–1,500 m asl. It occurs in four threat-defined locations and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 2,834 km2.

Habitat and Ecology

This species is known from montane tropical rainforest, and congregates and breeds in permanently wet seepage areas (Dring 1979, Manthey and Grossmann 1997, Chan-ard et al. 1999, Leong Tzi Ming pers. comm.). Breeding is by larval development. Observations of this species by roadsides and in ditches suggests that it is tolerant to some degree of habitat disturbance (Malaysia Red List Assessment Workshop January 2018).


It can be locally common within its small range (Leong Tzi Ming pers. comm.). Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat in the Cameron Highlands, the population is suspected to be decreasing.

Population Trend


Major Threats

In the Cameron Highlands, commercial agriculture (tea and fruit and vegetable plantations) is the biggest threat to habitat and is continuing to expand (Malaysia Red List Assessment Workshop January 2018). In Genting Highlands, the continued construction of hotels and other developments represent a highly plausible near-future threat to species occurring within this area and is likely to affect the water quality of stream habitats (E. Quah pers. comm. January 2018).

Logging is occurring around 900 m asl in Batu Talam Forest Reserve and Tranum Forest Reserve which is ca. 15 km away from Fraser’s Hill. It is possible that if it expands then it may encroach into this area, although The Association for the Protection of the Natural Heritage of Malaysia (PEKA) is actively opposing logging concession development (N. Ahmad pers. comm. January 2018). Therefore, logging is not considered to be a major threat to the species at present.

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in Fraser's Hill Wildlife Reserve, and Gunung Telapa Buruk is part of Berembun Virgin Jungle Reserve.

Conservation Needed
Although montane forest in this part of Peninsular Malaysia is relatively secure in some places, there is still a need for improved protection of montane forest habitats.

Research Needed
Studies on its taxonomy, population size, distribution and trends, life history and ecology are needed.

Red List Status

Endangered (EN)


Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 2,834 km2, it occurs in four threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in Cameron Highlands.

Taxonomic Notes

This species was previously thought by Berry (1975) and Kiew (1975) to include Limnonectes tweediei. However, Dring (1979), Grandison (1982) and Leong Tzi Ming (pers. comm.) consider the two forms to be distinct.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Limnonectes nitidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58361A90986997. .Downloaded on 18 January 2019


IUCN Terms of Use