This species is known from southern Thailand (Taylor, 1962), Peninsular Malaysia (and Tioman Island) (Dring, 1979, Manthey and Grossmann, 1997), Singapore (Leong 2000), from two localities in Borneo (Malaysia) and from three localities in Sumatra, Indonesia and Siberut in the Mentawais. It probably occurs more widely than current records suggest, especially in areas between known sites. It is a lowland species occurring between 100 and 800m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
The few known specimens were encountered in lowland rainforest. Eggs are placed above water-filled cavities in trees. One group of tadpoles was found in a water-containing hole in the trunk of a large tree. It is a microhabitat specialist of old-growth primary forest.
It is a difficult to find species, evidenced by the small number of records, and its discovery in well-surveyed Singapore as late as the year 2000 (Leong, 2000).
The main impacts have been the extensive logging and clearing of lowland rainforest throughout the species' known range.
Of the two known occurrences in protected areas in mainland Southeast Asia (Bukit Timah, Singapore, and Templer's Park, Malaysia), only one protected area is reasonably free from degradation. Securing the integrity of Templer's Park, designating Gunung Lawit as a protected area if suitable forest remains, and surveys and biological studies are all recommended. In Borneo, the known locality is in the Danum Conservation Area.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Peter Paul van Dijk, Robert Inger, Norsham Yaakob, Leong Tzi Ming 2004. Theloderma horridum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T59035A11873218. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T59035A11873218.en .Downloaded on 19 November 2018