Philautus surrufus
Malindang Tree Frog
family: Rhacophoridae
subfamily: Rhacophorinae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Endangered (EN)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Philippines


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known from Dapitan Peak (type locality), Mount Malindang, Mount Kitanglad, Mount Lumot, Mount Kalatungan, and Mount Hilong-hilong all on the Island of Mindanao, Philippines. The species may occur more widely in suitable habitat and suitable elevations between known sites. It occurs between 800–2,300 m asl. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 20,302 km2 and it is considered to occur in four threat-defined locations.

Habitat and Ecology

This species inhabits arboreal microhabitats in mossy and montane rainforests. It has also been found in secondary forest, plantation forest and agroecosystem sites adjacent to montane forest (Nuñeza et al. 2010, Warguez et al. 2013). It appears to tolerate at least some levels of disturbance to its preferred upper montane forest habitat (Sanguila et al. 2016). It breeds by direct development.


It was uncommon on Mount Malindang at the time of the original collection. It was present at seven out of fourteen sampled sites (N=104 individuals) in Mount Malindang during surveys between October 2003 and December 2004 (Nuñeza et al. 2010). Surveys recorded the species for the first time at Mounts Lumot and Hilong-hilong between 2009-2012 (Sanguila et al. 2016). Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.

Population Trend


Major Threats

Montane forests are generally less threatened by habitat conversion, small-scale agriculture, wood collection for firewood and charcoal making, and encroachment of human settlements. Nonetheless, these threats remain an issue in the lowland and lower montane habitat of this species. In addition, at Mount Hilong-hilong gold and chromite mining is causing the destruction of the forest habitat. While this species appears to tolerate some degree of habitat modification, it is certainly not immune to the effects of habitat loss.

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species occurs in Mount Malindang National Park, Mount Kitanglad Range, Mount Kalatungan Natural Park. 

Conservation Needed
The protected areas on this island are affected by habitat loss due to human activities taking place within and encroaching into their boundaries. Therefore, there is a need for improved protection of the remaining montane rainforest of Mindanao both inside and outside current protected areas. 

Research Needed
More information is needed on this species' population size, distribution, and trends.

Red List Status

Endangered (EN)


Listed as Near Threatened because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 20,302 km2, it occurs in four threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat on Mindanao in the Philippines, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable under criterion B.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Philautus surrufus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58922A58482499. .Downloaded on 19 January 2019


IUCN Terms of Use