Kiamichi Slimy Salamander
© 2014 Todd Pierson (1 of 3)
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: United States
Plethodon kiamichi Highton, 1989
Carl D. Anthony1
1. Historical versus Current Distribution. Kiamichi slimy salamanders (Plethodon kiamichi) were described by Highton et al. (1989) as a member of the slimy salamander (Plethodon glutinosus) species complex. Blair and Lindsay (1965) reported hybridization between Rich Mountain (P. ouachitae) and western slimy salamanders (P. albagula [glutinosus]), but this was not confirmed by protein comparisons in animals from the same localities (Duncan and Highton, 1979). Kiamichi slimy salamanders are known only from Kiamichi and Round mountains in southeastern Oklahoma (Black and Seivert, 1989; Highton et al., 1989). Kiamichi slimy salamanders are listed as a Protected species by Oklahoma. Their historical distribution is unknown.
2. Historical versus Current Abundance. Locally common within their limited range.
3. Life History Features. Little is known of the life history of this species. Life history features of Kiamichi slimy salamanders presumably are similar to that of related forms.
A. Breeding. Reproduction is terrestrial.
i. Breeding migrations. Unknown.
ii. Breeding habitat. Breeding habitat is unknown.
i. Egg deposition sites. Unknown.
ii. Clutch size. No reports of egg sizes or numbers.
C. Direct Development. Details have not been reported.
D. Juvenile Habitat. Same as adult habitat.
E. Adult Habitat. Kiamichi slimy salamanders are most commonly found at higher elevations in moist woods (Black and Sievert, 1989) and ravines. Rocks and logs are common cover objects.
F. Home Range Size. Unknown.
G. Territories. Adults defend areas in laboratory chambers (Anthony, 1995). Territorial behavior is similar to that of western slimy salamanders.
H. Aestivation/Avoiding Dessication. Aestivation is unknown, however animals likely avoid dessicating conditions by moving under cover objects or into burrows.
I. Seasonal Migrations. Unknown.
J. Torpor (Hibernation). Probably hibernate from mid November to late March.
K. Interspecific Associations/Exclusions. Occur syntopically with Rich Mountain salamanders (P. ouachitae) and southern red-backed salamanders (P. serratus).
L. Age/Size at Reproductive Maturity. Adults typically range in size from 48–75 mm SVL.
M. Longevity. Unknown.
N. Feeding Behavior. Unknown, but prey likely consists of small invertebrates such as worms, insects, and spiders.
O. Predators. Unknown.
P. Anti-Predator Mechanisms. Nocturnal. All members of the genus Plethodon produce noxious skin secretions (Brodie, 1977). When handled, Kiamichi slimy salamanders, as with other members of the P. glutinosus group, release an adhesive secretion.
Q. Diseases. Unknown.
R. Parasites. Unknown.
4. Conservation. Kiamichi slimy salamanders have a limited distribution, being known only from Kiamichi and Round mountains in southeastern Oklahoma. They can be locally common within their limited range. Kiamichi slimy salamanders are listed as Protected by Oklahoma.
1Carl D. Anthony
Literature references for Amphibian Declines: The Conservation Status of United States Species, edited by Michael Lannoo, are here.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2019. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 22 May 2019.
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