This is a poorly known species that is presumed to be endemic to the southern Western Ghats of India. A record from Maharashtra (Yazdani and Mahabal 1976) requires confirmation. Manamendra-Arachchi and Pethiyagoda (1998) clarified that it does not occur in Sri Lanka. The altitudinal range is from 1,400-2,100 m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
A terrestrial species associated with montane 'shola' (grassland-forest mosaic) and tropical moist forest habitat; it has not been recorded from modified habitats. It may be found in the vicinity of water bodies, but the breeding habitat is not known.
It is a rare species.
The major threat to this species is habitat loss due to the conversion of forested areas to cultivated land (including timber and non-timber plantations), future dam development projects, road construction, and urbanization.
It has been recorded from the Kalakkad Mundauthurai Tiger Reserve (Tamil Nadu) and Silent Valley National Park (Kerala).
Red List Status
Listed as Vulnerable because its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2 and its Area of Occupancy is less than 2,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
Several specimens bearing this name, and which are deposited in different museums in India, do not belong to this species (Biju 2001).
Biju, S.D., Dutta, S., Vasudevan, K., Vijayakumar, S.P., Srinivasulu, C. & Dasaramji Buddhe, G. 2004. Duttaphrynus microtympanum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54710A86445171. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54710A11189644.en .Downloaded on 22 January 2019