This species is known only from the islands of Bali and Lombok in Indonesia, between 1,100–2,300 m asl (McKay 2006). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,499 km2 and all individuals are considered to occur in two threat-defined locations.
Habitat and Ecology
This species is generally known from highland forest, but has also been found in forest edges and botanical gardens on Bali (M. Kusrini and A. Hamidy pers. comm. May 2017). It presumably lays eggs on the ground and breeds by direct development without a larval stage, as its congeners.
This species had previously not been recorded since the 1930s. It is difficult to detect due to its small size and as it is found in high elevation habitat (M. Kusrini and A. Hamidy pers. comm. May 2017), which may account for the lack of records. In three surveys between 2014-2015 on Lombok, this species was recorded in Mount Rinjani National Park (M. Kusrini pers. comm. May 2017).
The habitat of this species is minorly impacted by tourist activities of hiking in both Bali and Lombok (M. Kusrini and A. Hamidy pers. comm. May 2017). Volcanic activity is also a threat to this species and its habitat on Lombok (A. Hamidy and M. Kusrini pers. comm. May 2017). No large eruptions have occurred since 2010, which did destroy some small villages, however the species has been recorded since then (M. Kusrini pers. comm. May 2017). There was also a small eruption in 2016 which lasted a day, however the impact of these smaller eruptions on the species' habitat is unknown (M. Kusrini pers. comm. May 2017). Human settlements and tourist infrastructure are also increasing on Lombok (Indonesian Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).
The mountain forests on Bali are protected, but for recreational purposes, not for biodiversity conservation. On Lombok, this species occurs in Gunung Rinjani Nature Reserve.
Ongoing management and protection of the Nature Reserve is required, as is improved protection of the forests on Bali.
There is clearly an urgent need for survey work to establish the current population status of this species on the two islands.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,499 km2, it occurs in two threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat on Bali and Lombok.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Oreophryne monticola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T57925A114919880. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T57925A114919880.en .Downloaded on 20 January 2019