Ichthyophis glandulosus
family: Ichthyophiidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Data Deficient (DD)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Philippines


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known from one site on Basilan Island (the type locality) and also from Pasonanca National Park on Mindanao Island (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017), in the Philippines. The elevational range of the species is sea level to 150 m asl and its EOO is 3,002 km2. It is presumed to occur more widely in suitable habitat (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).

Habitat and Ecology

This species occurs in lowland rainforest, where the adults are subterranean. It is presumably oviparous with terrestrial eggs and aquatic larvae that are believed to inhabit unpolluted streams, rivers and quiet pools near streams. Adults of congeners have also been found in streams and it is presumed to follow this behaviour.


The species was recorded during surveys on Mindanao in 2009; it was originally collected in the 1920s, but surveys to Basilan Island have been sporadic since then and no comprehensive surveys of the islands have been conducted due to security concerns (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). The population trend is unknown.

Population Trend


Major Threats

On the Mindanao mainland, within the boundaries of the National Park, there are no threats. However, should the species occur outside the protected area, the major threats are logging, habitat conversion to agriculture, and pollution of streams and rivers from mining and agricultural effluents. Much of the natural vegetation has been destroyed at Marata Bogan, Lanao del Norte Province (Mindanao), where the species was collected in 1940 (Diesmos 2012).

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species occurs in Pasonanca National Park on Mindanao, which is relatively well protected.

Research Needed
More information is needed on this species' distribution, taxonomy, population status, ecology and threats.

Red List Status

Data Deficient (DD)


Listed as Data Deficient in view of continuing uncertainties as to its extent of occurrence, population status and ecological requirements.

Taxonomic Notes

The taxonomic status of this species is unclear.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Ichthyophis glandulosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T25382A58475060. .Downloaded on 21 January 2019


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