AmphibiaWeb: Educational Uses [an error occurred while processing this directive] <h2>Suggested Uses of AmphibiaWeb for Educators</h2> <p><h4> (Updated August 5, 2013)</h4></p> <p>Thank you for choosing AmphibiaWeb for your education needs. Below you will find a table outlining the different examples that amphibians can be used to illustrate biological concepts. We are often update the table so please feel free to offer suggestions. <p> <table border cellpadding=3> <tr> <td width="22%"><font size="3"><b>Biological Concept</b></td></font></P> <td width="78%"><P ALIGN=Center><font size="3"><b>AmphibiaWeb Illustration of Concept</b></font></P></td> </tr> <tr> <td>Metamorphosis</td> <td> <ul> <li> <a href="/education/P.regilla_coloring_pg.pdf">The Life Cycle of the Pacific Treefrog coloring page</a> </ul> <tr> <td>Extinction</td> <td> <ul> <li>Illustrate the differences between normal and exceptional declines using the <a href="/declines/declines.html> Amphibian Declines page</a>. <li><a href="/search/index.html">Search the database</a> to see how many species are threatened. (Select from the list in IUCN categories) </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Speciation</td> <td> <ul> <li>Compare the diversity between amphibian orders and or families. Discuss why some groups are more diverse. <li>Compare families that have key innovations with families that do not. For example, how do families that have evolved direct development compare with families in the same biome in regards to diversity? <li>Tie speciation in with biogeography. See <a href=>this article</a> for an example of salamander diversity and elevation. </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Global Patterns of Diversity</td> <td> <ul> <li>Use <a href="/amphibian/cartograms/">Cartograms </a>page as a visualization to prompt discussions on differences in diversities of the three orders. <ul><li>Why do we only see caecilians in the tropics? <p><li>Why is salamander diversity the greatest in the regions not rich in frogs? </ul> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Sexual Dimorphisim</td> <td> <ul> <li>See the <a href=/amphibian/dichromatism.html>Dichromatism</a> page. <li>Compare species with sexual sizes differences. Examples of males being larger are Emei Moustache Toad (<a href=><i>Leptobrachium boringii</a></i>), Hairy frog (<a href=><i>Trichobatrachus robustus</a></i>), Ferner's Fanged Frog (<a href=><i>Limnonectes ferneri</a></i>), and Goliath Frogs (<a href=><i>Conraua goliath</a></i>; page to be edited to more explicitly state sexual dimorphism). <li>Females tend to be larger than males in anurans (usually attributed to their biological need for more space to produce eggs), but some example accounts are the African Clawed frog (<a href=><i>Xenopus laevis</a></i>) and family <a href =>Brevicipitidae</a>. </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Parental Care</td> <td> <ul> <li>See accounts and images for Midwife toads (<a href=><i>Alytes obstetricans</a></i> or <a href=><i>Alytes cisternasii</a></i>), Gastric Brooding Frogs (<a href=>northern</a> and <a href=>southern</a>, both are extinct), many poison dart frogs (<a href=><i>Andiobates</a></i> and <a href=><i>Epipedobates</a></i>). Additionally, many caecilians (Gymnophionia), specifically <i>Microcaecilia dermatophaga</i> (see this <a href=>news article</a>, or the <a href=>open access original paper</a>), the Mexican Caecilian (<a href=><i>Dermophis mexicanus</a></i>), Beddome's Caecilian (<a href=><i>Ichthyophis beddomei</a></i>), and the family <a href=>Typhlonectidae</i>.</a> <ul><li>Discuss factors why some caecilians may have more parental care than others. </ul> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Key Adaptations</td> <td> <ul> <li>Direct development of larvae (eggs that hatch out little frogs, also called froglets, or live birth of tadpoles or froglets). Family examples include <a href =>Brevicipitidae</a>. <li>Evolution of toepad morphology include sticky or enlarged pads for climbing, and enlarged pads for gliding. Examples of climbing pads include the family <a href=>Hylidae</a> (sticky pads) and family <a href=>Rhacophoridae</a> (enlarged pads). Examples of gliding pads include : Vampire Flying Frogs (<a href=><i>Rhacophorus vampyrus</a>,</i>), and Wallace's Flying Frog (<a href=><i>Rhacophorus nigropalmatus</a></i>). <li>Adaptations to arid environments include fossorial aestivation, explosive breeding, and rapid metamorphosis of larvae. Family examples are <a href=> Scaphiopodidae</a>, <a href=>Pelobatidae</a>. <li>Loss of lungs that allow for shooting tongue is most known in the family <a href=>Plethodontidae</a>. <li>Adaptations to aquatic life can include the presences of lateral lines, paedomorphism, and increased lung capacity. Family examples include <a href=>Amphiumidae</a>, <a href=>Sirenidae</a>, <a href=>Pipidae</a>, and <a href=>Typhlonectidae</a>. Adaptations to breeding in fast moving streams can also found in the family <a href=>Ascaphidae</a>, in which males have a unique external copulatory organ that can only be found in the two species of this family, <i>Ascaphus montanus</i> and <i>Ascaphus truei</i>. </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td>Natural Selection or <br>Mal-adaptations</td> <td> <ul> <li>Use the <a href="">search</a> option for "Reasons for Decline" as "disease". Which species are unable to adapt to this disease. Also in host-parasite evolution, <i>Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis</i>, the pathogen causing chytridomycosis, is driving itself toward extinction? <li>Use the <a href="">search</a> option for "Reasons for Decline" as "Introduced competitors" and/or "Predators (natural or introduced)". </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <div id="solutions"> <br> <hr> <h3>We are always looking for new ideas and ways to improve so please drop us a line if you have suggestions!</h3> <p> <a href="/cgi/"><em>Send a Message</em><br> <img height="20" src="/images/email_icon.png"> </a> </div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td class=leftsidebottom> </td> <td class=footer> <hr> <script> var monthNames = [ "Jan", "Feb", "Mar", "Apr", "May", "Jun", "Jul", "Aug", "Sep", "Oct", "Nov", "Dec" ]; var date = new Date(); var day = date.getDate(); var monthIndex = date.getMonth(); var year = date.getFullYear(); console.log(day, monthNames[monthIndex], year); document.write('Citation: '); document.write('AmphibiaWeb. 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