AMPHIBIAWEB

UV-B Map and Key


Figure 1. Areas around the world where UV-B field studies have been conducted. Each number represents a species and each letter corresponds to a study. Red letters represent studies that found a negative effect of UV-B radiation, black numbers represent studies that found no effect and the one yellow number represents a positive effect. For more information on each study see the map key below (map and key prepared by Rebecca Doubledee 2004).
Key

1a Ambystoma gracile: Embryos shielded from UV-B had a higher hatching success than those unshielded from ambient levels of UV-B radiation in field experiments conducted at the Corvalis Watershed Reservoir, Oregon (Blaustein et al. 1995).

1b Ambystoma gracile - there was no correlation between breeding sites and UV-B radiation in Olympic National Park, Washington. (Adams et al. 2001)

2a Ambystoma macrodactylum: Embryos shielded from UV-B had higher hatching rates, fewer deformities and developed faster than those exposed to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in field experiments conducted in Deschutes Co. Oregon (Blaustein et al. 1997).

2b Ambystoma macrodactylum - larvae collected from low elevation sites in the Willamette Valley, Oregon experienced higher mortality rates when exposed to ambient levels of UV-B radiation than larvae collected from high elevation sites in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon (Belden et al. 2000). Larvae from higher elevation sites did have lower growth rates when exposed to ambient levels of UV-B radiation (Belden et al. 2000).

3a Bufo boreas - Embryo hatching success was significantly affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted in the Cascade Mountains, Deschutes Co., Oregon (Blaustein et al. 1994).

3b Bufo boreas: Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation increased infection of embryos by a parasitic fungus Saprolegnia ferax in field experiments conducted at three sites in Deschutes Co. and Linn Co. Oregon (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1995).

3c Bufo boreas: decreased water levels due to climate change events increases exposure of embryos to UV-B radiation which increases infection by a parasitic fungus Saprolegnia ferax in field experiments conducted in lost lake, Linn Co. Oregon (Kiesecker et al. 2001).

4a Bufo bufo - Embryo hatching success was significantly affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted in ìPrado de las Pozasî, the Sierra de Gredos central system of Spain (Lizana and Pedraza 1998).

4b Bufo bufo - Neither embryo hatching success or tadpole survival was affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted at the Institute of Ecology/Limnology, Lund University, Sweden (Langhelle et al. 1999).

4c Bufo bufo - Embryo hatching success was unaffected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted in natural ponds at the University of Joensuu, botanical garden, Joensuu, Finland (H‰kkinen et al. 2001). However, exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation did decrease larval survival.

5a Bufo calamita - Embryo hatching success was not affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted in ìPrado de las Pozasî, the Sierrade Gredos central system of Spain (Lizana and Pedraza 1998).

5b Bufo calamita - Neither embryo hatching success or tadpole survival was affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted at the Institute of Ecology/Limnology, Lund University, Sweden (Langhelle et al. 1999).

6 Crinia signifera - Embryo and tadpole survival was significantly affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation at three different elevations (1365, 1600 and 1930m), with the larger affects seen at higher elevations, in a field experiment conducted in Kosciuszko National Park, South Eastern Australia (Broomhall et al. 2000). The effects of UV-B radiation was not as large for Crinia signifera as it was for Litoria verreauxii alpine a species experiencing declines.

7 Pseudacris cadaverina: Embryos displayed high rates of embryonic mortality when exposed to solar UV-B. Elimination of solar UV-B significantly increased hatching success, but had no effect on rates of embryonic development in field experiments conducted in the Santa Monica Mountains, California. (Anzalone et al. 1998).

8 Hyla chrysoscelis : Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation caused significantly more embryo deformities in field experiments conducted in Buncombe Co., North Carolina (Starnes et al. 2000).

9a Pseudacris regilla - Embryo hatching success was unaffected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted in the Cascade Mountains, Deschutes Co., Oregon (Blaustein et al. 1994).

9b Pseudacris regilla - Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation had no affect on embryo mortality in field experiments conducted at three sites in Deschutes Co. and Linn Co. Oregon (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1995).

9c Pseudacris regilla- Exposure to ambient or enhanced (30% above ambient) levels of UV-B radiation had no affect on embryo hatching success. Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation had no affect on larval survival but enhanced levels of UV-B radiation had a significant affect on larval survival in field experiments conducted in Victoria, British Columbia (Ovaska et al. 1997).

9d Pseudacris regilla - there was no significant affect of UV-B on embryonic mortality in field experiments conducted in the Santa Monica Mountains, California (Anzalone et al. 1998).

10 Litoria verreauxii alpine - Embryo and tadpole survival was significantly affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation at three elevational sites (1365, 1600 and 1930m) in a field experiment conducted in Kosciuszko National Park, South Eastern Australia (Broomhall et al. 2000). Exposure to ambient levels UV-B radiation had a larger affect at the higher elevation sites.

11 Pseudacris triseriata: Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation had no significant affect on the hatching success or deformity rate of embryos in field experiments conducted in Buncombe Co., North Carolina (Starnes et al. 2000).

12 Rana arvalis - Embryo hatching success, but not tadpole survival, was affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted in natural ponds at the University of Joensuu, botanical garden, Joensuu, Finland (H‰kkinen et al. 2001).

13a Rana aurora: Embryo hatching success was unaffected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation and embryos exhibited high photolyase activity in field experiments conducted at the Lewis Brown Horticultural Farm in Benton Co. Oregon (Blaustein et al. 1996).

13b Rana aurora - Exposure to enhanced (30% above ambient) levels of UV-B radiation had a significant affect on embryo hatching success and larval survival in field experiments conducted in Victoria, British Columbia (Ovaska et al. 1997).

13c Rana aurora: Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation significantly decreased the size and developmental rates of tadpoles one month after hatching in field experiments conducted in the Willamett Valley, Oregon (Belden and Blaustein 2002).

14 Rana blairi: Exposure to low (58% transmittance) and high (84% transmittance) levels of UV-B radiation had no affect on hatching success, but high levels of UV-B radiation significantly lowered hatchling size, growth and developmental rates in field experiments conducted in Liberty, Clay Co. Missouri (Smith et al. 2000).

15a Rana cascadae - Embryo hatching success was significantly affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted in the Cascade Mountains, Deschutes Co., Oregon (Blaustein et al. 1994).

15b Rana cascadae - Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation increased infection of embryos by a parasitic fungus Saprolegnia ferax in field experiments conducted at three sites in Deschutes Co. and Linn Co. Oregon (Kiesecker and Blaustein 1995).

15c Rana cascadae - there was a significant negative correlation between UV-B radiation and the spatial distribution of breeding sites in Olympic National Park, Washington (Adams et al. 2001).

15d Rana cascadae - Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation for six weeks, significantly increased larval mortality rates, but larvae did not show avoidance behavior to UV-B in field experiments conducted in the Cascade Mountains, Linn Co., Oregon (Belden et al. 2003).

16 Rana clamitans - Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation decreased hatching success and larval survival in field experiments conducted in Duluth, Minnesota (Tietge et al. 2001).

17 Rana pipiens : Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation decreased hatching success and larval survival in field experiments conducted in Duluth, Minnesota (Tietge et al. 2001).

18 Rana pretiosa: there was no affect of ambient levels of UV-B radiation on the hatching success of embryos from three sites in Washington, Thurston Co. (37m), Klickitat Co. (596m) and Chelan Co. (1679m). All embryos also exhibited high photolyase activity (Blaustein et al. 1999).

19 Rana septentrionalis - Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation decreased hatching success and larval survival in field experiments conducted in Duluth, Minnesota (Tietge et al. 2001).

20 Rana sphenocephala - Tadpole survivorship to metamorphosis increased when exposed to ambient levels of UV-B radiation and the insecticide carbaryl in field experiments conducted in Howard Co. Missouri (Bridges and Boone 2003).

21 Rana sylvatica - Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation had no significant affect on the hatching success or deformity rate of embryos in field experiments conducted in Buncombe Co., North Carolina (Starnes et al. 2000).

22a Rana temporaria - Neither embryo hatching success or tadpole survival was affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted at the Institute of Ecology/Limnology, Lund University, Sweden (Langhelle et al. 1999).

22b Rana temporaria - Neither embryo hatching success or tadpole survival was affected by exposure to ambient levels of UV-B radiation in a field experiment conducted in natural ponds at the University of Joensuu, botanical garden, Joensuu, Finland (H‰kkinen et al. 2001).

23 Taricha granulosa: there was no affect of UV-B exposure on the orientation of larvae in field experiments conducted at the Corvalis Watershed Reservoir, Oregon, but there was a significant affect on activity levels, with UV-B exposed larvae being more active than larvae not exposed to UV-B (Blaustein et al. 2000).

24 Taricha torosa - there was a significant affect of UV-B on embryonic mortality in field experiments conducted in the Santa Monica Mountains, California. (Anzalone et al. 1998).

25 Triturus alpestris - Exposure to ambient levels of UV-B caused sever skin damage and increased mortality in larvae in field experiments conducted at the Institute of Zoology and Limnology, University of Innsbruck, Austria (Nagl and Hofer 1997).

Literature Cited

Adams, M. J., D. E. Schindler, and R. B. Bury. 2001. Association of amphibians with attenuation of ultraviolet-b radiation in montane ponds. Oecologia (Berlin) 128:519-525.

Anzalone, C. R., L. B. Kats, and M. S. Gordon. 1998. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on embryonic development in Hyla cadaverina, Hyla regilla, and Taricha torosa. Conservation Biology 12:646-653.

Belden, L. K., and A. R. Blaustein. 2002. Exposure of red-legged frog embryos to ambient UV-B radiation in the field negatively affects larval growth and development. Oecologia (Berlin) 130:551-554.

Belden, L. K., I. T. Moore, R. T. Mason, J. C. Wingfield, and A. R. Blaustein. 2003. Survival, the hormonal stress response and UV-B avoidance in Cascades Frog tadpoles (Rana cascadae) exposed to UV-B radiation. Functional Ecology 17:409-416.

Belden, L. K., E. L. Wildy, and A. R. Blaustein. 2000. Growth, survival and behaviour of larval long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) exposed to ambient levels of UV-B radiation. Journal of Zoology 251:473-479.

Blaustein, A. R., D. P. Chivers, L. B. Kats, and J. M. Kiesecker. 2000. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on locomotion and orientation in roughskin newts (Taricha granulosa). Ethology 106:227-234.

Blaustein, A. R., B. Edmond, J. M. Kiesecker, J. J. Beatty, and D. G. Hokit. 1995. Ambient ultraviolet radiation causes mortality in salamander eggs. Ecological applications 5:740-743.

Blaustein, A. R., J. B. Hays, P. D. Hoffman, D. P. Chivers, J. M. Kiesecker, W. P. Leonard, A. Marco, D. H. Olson, J. K. Reaser, and R. G. Anthony. 1999. DNA repair and resistance to UV-B radiation in western spotted frogs. Ecological applications 9:1100-1105.

Blaustein, A. R., P. D. Hoffman, D. G. Hokit, J. M. Kiesecker, S. C. Walls, and J. B. Hays. 1994. UV repair and resistance to solar UV-B in amphibian eggs: A link to population declines? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91:1791-1795.

Blaustein, A. R., P. D. Hoffman, J. M. Kiesecker, and J. B. Hays. 1996. DNA repair activity and resistance to solar UV-B radiation in eggs of the red-legged frog. Conservation Biology 10:1398-1402.

Blaustein, A. R., J. M. Kiesecker, D. P. Chivers, and R. G. Anthony. 1997. Ambient UV-B radiation causes deformities in amphibian embryos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94:13735-13737.

Bridges, C. M., and M. D. Boone. 2003. The interactive effects of UV-B and insecticide exposure on tadpole survival, growth and development. Biological Conservation 113:49-54.

Broomhall, S. D., W. S. Osborne, and R. B. Cunningham. 2000. Comparative effects of ambient ultraviolet-B radiation on two sympatric species of Australian frogs. Conservation Biology 14:420-427.

H‰kkinen, J., S. Pasanen, and J. V. K. Kukkonen. 2001. The effects of solar UV-B radiation on embryonic mortality and development in three boreal anurans (Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis and Bufo bufo). Chemosphere 44:441-446.

Kiesecker, J. M., and A. R. Blaustein. 1995. Synergism between UV-B radiation and a pathogen magnifies amphibian embryo mortality in nature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92:11049-11052.

Kiesecker, J. M., A. R. Blaustein, and L. K. Belden. 2001. Complex causes of amphibian population declines. Nature 410:681-684.

Langhelle, A., J. Lindell Mans, and P. Nystrom. 1999. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on amphibian embryonic and larval development. Journal of Herpetology 33:449-456.

Lizana, M., and E. M. Pedraza. 1998. The effects of UV-B radiation on toad mortality in mountainous areas of central Spain. Conservation Biology 12:703-707.

Nagl, A. M., and R. Hofer. 1997. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on early larval stages of the Alpine newt, Triturus alpestris, under natural and laboratory conditions. Oecologia 110:514-519.

Ovaska, K., M. Davis Theodore, and N. Flamarique Inigo. 1997. Hatching success and larval survival of the frogs Hyla regilla and Rana aurora under ambient and artificially enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75:1081-1088.

Smith, G. R., M. A. Waters, and J. E. Rettig. 2000. Consequences of embryonic UV-B exposure for embryos and tadpoles of the plains leopard frog. Conservation Biology 14:1903-1907.

Starnes, S. M., C. A. Kennedy, and J. W. Petranka. 2000. Sensitivity of embryos of southern Appalachian amphibians to ambient solar UV-B radiation. Conservation Biology 14:277-282.

Tietge, J. E., S. A. Diamond, G. T. Ankley, D. L. DeFoe, G. W. Holcombe, K. M. Jensen, S. J. Degitz, G. E. Elonen, and E. Hammer. 2001. Ambient solar UV radiation causes mortality in larvae of three species of Rana under controlled exposure conditions. Photochemistry and Photobiology 74:261-268.