Xenophrys parallela
family: Megophryidae
Species Description: Inger, R. F. and Iskandar, D. T. 2005. A collection of amphibians from west Sumatra, with description of a new species ofMegophrys(Amphibia: Anura).The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology: 133-142.
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Data Deficient (DD)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Indonesia


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known from western Sumatra, Indonesia. It was formerly only known from its type locality at Batang Sarasah, Lubuk Selasih, near Solok, West Sumatra Province (Inger and Iskandar 2005), but is now also known from Gunung Talang, West Sumatra Province (M. Kamsi and D. Iskandar pers. comm. May 2017); Gunung Seblat (Kerinci Seblat National Park), Bengkulu Province (Novia et al. 2015); Kemiri Mountain (Gunung Leuser National Park), Aceh Province, as well as, Mount Sinabung (Gunung Leuser National Park), Dolok Saut (Batang Toru Protection Forest), and Batahan Menek (Batang Gadis National Park) in North Sumatra Province. It is likely to have similar habits to Megophrys aceras from the Malay Peninsula, so it could be expected to have a wide distribution in montane forest along Sumatra's western coast where it occurs from 1,250–1,450 m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

This species inhabits montane tropical rainforest. One individual was found in primary forest, and the others in secondary forest, indicating that this species has at least a degree of tolerance to habitat degradation. Individuals were found on dead leaves, and on a small log on the bank of a small stream, and in cracks of rocks (Inger and Iskandar 2005, M. Kamsi pers. comm. May 2017). This species is presumed to breed by larval development in streams.


This species does not appear to be common, however this may be an artifact of its quiet call and cryptic habits (M. Kamsi pers. comm. May 2017). Due to ongoing decline in the quality and extent of forest habitat, its population is suspected to be decreasing.

Population Trend


Major Threats

The major threats to this species are logging and deforestation due to small-scale agriculture and tea plantations. Not only are these a direct threat through loss of habitat, but habitat degradation through the loss of the humid shaded leaf-litter microclimate the species needs is also likely to be a problem. Deforestation and agrochemicals also reduce the number of clear-flowing unpolluted streams available to the larvae.

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in the Kerinci Seblat, Batang Gadis, and Gunung Leuser National Parks, as well as, Batang Toru Protection Forest, all of which are well-protected. 

Research Needed
Studies are needed on its distribution, population status and trends.

Red List Status

Data Deficient (DD)


Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and extent of remaining suitable habitat across its range.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Megophrys parallela. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T61842A97462605. .Downloaded on 11 December 2018


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