Xanthophryne tigerina
family: Bufonidae
Species Description: Biju SD, Van Bocxlaer I, Giri VB, Loader SP, Bossuyt F. 2009. Two endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from western Ghats of India. BMC Research Notes 2:241

© 2011 Zeeshan Mirza (1 of 6)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Critically Endangered (CR)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: India



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known only from the type locality, Amboli (at 720 m asl), Maharashtra state, in the Western Ghats of India (Biju et al. 2009). Its AOO is presumed to be less than 10 km2 and its EOO less than 100 km2 (S.D. Biju pers. comm. January 2011).

Habitat and Ecology

It is a terrestrial species found near disturbed evergreen forest patches (Biju et al. 2009) and plantations (S.D. Biju pers. comm. December 2010). Egg clutch size varies between 30-35 eggs, and eggs are laid in temporary puddles on laterite rocks (Biju et al. 2009). The species appears to be tolerant of some habitat modification since it occurs near disturbed forests; however, the extent of this tolerance is unknown.


This species is now considered to be rare compared to what it was in 2001 (S.D. Biju pers. comm. January 2011).

Population Trend


Major Threats

The area where this species occurs is experiencing loss of forest cover and its habitat is considered to be severely fragmented (S.D. Biju pers. comm. December 2010). Major threats to this species are large-scale agricultural activities, logging and tourism (S.D. Biju pers. comm. January 2011).

Conservation Actions

No conservation actions are currently known for this species, and it is not known to occur in any protected areas. Protection of its fragmented forest habitat is necessary. More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status, natural history and threats.

Red List Status

Critically Endangered (CR)


Listed as Critically Endangered because its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be less than 10 km², its extent of occurrence (EOO) less than 100 km², all individuals are in a single location, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat and in the number of mature individuals.



IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2011. Xanthophryne tigerina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T189700A8763964. .Downloaded on 16 February 2019


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