Salamandrina perspicillata
Northern Spectacled Salamander
family: Salamandridae
subfamily: Salamandrininae
Species Description: Nascetti G, Zangari F, Canestrelli D 2005 The spectacled salamanders, Salamandrina terdigitata (Lacepede, 1788) and S. perspicillata (Savi, 1821): 1) Genetic differentiation and evolutionary history. Rend. Fis. Ace. Linei s. 9, v. 16:159-169

© 2016 Dr. Joachim Nerz (1 of 52)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is endemic to peninsular Italy, mainly in the Appenine Mountains (where it is widespread), but also in other hilly areas to the west and east of the Appenines, south to the province of Caserta (Campania region) (south of this it is replaced by Salamandrina terdigitata). It is usually found at elevations between 200 and 900m asl, but can occur between 50 and 1,500m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

It is mainly found in forests with dense undergrowth in hilly and mountainous areas, often in north-facing mountain valleys. Only females of this species are aquatic during the short oviposition phase for which well-oxygenated waters, slow running streams (usually with rocky beds), drinking troughs, and residual and vernal ponds (sometime of very small dimensions) are used. It appears to avoid seriously modified habitats. This species shows high site fidelity to breeding sites.


It is sometimes difficult to find, but it is common in western parts of its range.

Population Trend


Major Threats

In parts of the species range there are some localized declines through habitat loss and aquatic pollution. But overall, it is not significantly threatened.

Conservation Actions

This species is protected by law in several provinces in Italy, and it is listed in Appendix II of the Bern Convention. It occurs in several protected areas, including the Abruzzo National Park.

Red List Status

Least Concern (LC)


Listed as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Taxonomic Notes

We follow Mattoccia et al. (2005) and Canestrelli et al. (2006) in separating Salamandrina perspicillata from S. terdigitata.


Antonio Romano, Marco Mattoccia, Valerio Sbordoni, Franco Andreone, Claudia Corti 2009. Salamandrina perspicillata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T136135A4248006. .Downloaded on 19 February 2019


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