Pristimantis cruciocularis
family: Strabomantidae
subfamily: Pristimantinae
Species Description: Lehr, E., Lundberg, M., Aguilar, C., and von May, R. 2006. New species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Eastern Andes of central Peru with comments on central Peruvian Eleutherodactylus. Herpetological Monographs 20: 105-128.

© 2008 German Chavez (1 of 1)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Vulnerable (VU)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Peru



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known from Pampa Hermosa (Huasahuasi District), San Alberto, and 30 km northeast of Tingo María, in Cordillera Azul in the Regions of Junín, Pasco and Huánuco, Peru, at elevations between 1,330 and 1,850 m asl (Lehr et al. 2006), Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and its buffer zone in Pasco at 2,900 m asl (E. Lehr pers. comm. February 2013, A. Angulo pers. comm. April 2017), within the Llamaquizú Basin at 2,148 m asl (Chávez et al. 2012), and Pui Pui Protected Forest (Lehr and Moravec 2017, E. Lehr pers. comm. April 2017). Following the synonymy of P. flavobractus, this species is now also known to occur at km 34 on the road Oxapampa to Yaupi, District of Chontabamba, Province of Oxapampa, Pasco, Peru (Lehr et al. 2006, Catenazzi and Lehr 2018). It could possibly occur in the intervening areas between Cordillera Azul and its other localities in central Peru. Its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 20,299 km2 and it probably occurs in more than 10 threat-defined locations (A. Angulo pers. comm. April 2017).

Habitat and Ecology

It is known to occur in the Selva Alta ecoregion in primary and secondary montane and premontane forest. It has always been observed in undisturbed forest and forested areas with low disturbance (R. von May and E. Lehr pers. comm. April 2017). Individuals are active at night and can be found on vegetation, ca 1 m above the ground, or on leaf-litter and close to streams or creeks (Lehr et al. 2006, Chávez et al. 2012). It is presumed to breed by direct development.


This species is moderately common and the population is considered to be stable (E. Lehr, R. von May and A. Angulo pers. comm. April 2017). A total of 22 individuals were found over the course of six person/day surveys in 2003 (von May et al. 2008). It was found to have a moderate abundance in the upper Llamaquizú basin (Chávez et al. 2012).

Population Trend


Major Threats

Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and Pui Pui Protected Forest are currently well protected and there are no major threats to this species within these areas (A. Angulo pers. comm. April 2017, E. Lehr pers. comm. April 2017). Deforestation due to agricultural expansion has been observed throughout the region where this species occurs (E. Lehr pers. comm. 2008, February 2013). There is some encroachment of agriculture and cattle grazing in the buffer zone of Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park, as well as, selective logging that could be a potential threat to this species (R. von May pers. comm. April 2017). In 2012–2013, two specimens from Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and Pui Pui Protected Forest tested positive for chytrid fungus (E. Lehr pers. comm. April 2017), however the effect of this disease on this direct-developing frog remains uncertain.

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The type locality of this species, Pampa Hermosa National Sanctuary, is locally protected (E. Lehr pers. comm. 2008). The species also occurs within Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park and its buffer zone, (E. Lehr pers. comm. February 2013, A. Angulo pers. comm. April 2017), Pui Pui Protected Forest (R. von May and E. Lehr pers. comm. April 2017), as well as Otishi National Park (Barboza Sánchez 2014).

Research Needed
More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status, and trends.

Red List Status

Vulnerable (VU)


Listed as Least Concern since it has a moderately large distribution (its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 20,299 km2), it probably occurs in more than 10 locations, it is common and thought to have a stable population, and it occurs in several well-protected areas.

Taxonomic Notes

Pristimantis flavobracatus has been synonymized with this species (Catenazzi and Lehr 2018).


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Pristimantis cruciocularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T130481421A89216201. .Downloaded on 20 February 2019


IUCN Terms of Use