AmphibiaWeb - Polypedates maculatus


(Translations may not be accurate.)

Polypedates maculatus (Gray, 1830)
Chunam Tree Frog, Common Indian Tree Frog
family: Rhacophoridae
subfamily: Rhacophorinae
genus: Polypedates
Polypedates maculatus
© 2017 Chaitanya Shukla (1 of 19)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN Red List Status Account Least Concern (LC)
National Status Lower Risk
Regional Status None
conservation needs Access Conservation Needs Assessment Report .


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Snout-vent length of mature males 34-57 mm, females 44-89 mm. Dorsum smooth, chin and chest smoothly granular, venter and underside of thigh granular. Males with single internal vocal sac and nuptial pad at base of first finger. Dorsum olivaceous to chestnut, sometimes brownish-yellow or grey with scattered dark spots; loreal and temporal regions dark brown or black; limbs with dark cross-bars. Hinder side of thighs with round yellow spots which are usually separated by a dark brown network (Daniel 2002). However, I have never found a specimen with such spots! (Peter Janzen,

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka

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A typical frog of moist deciduous forest. This frog has become semi-urban, especially in cities with extensive gardens.

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Sexual maturity is attained at a SVL of 35 mm in males and 41 mm in females. Breeding-time is the monsoon season. The call of the male frog is heard after sunset. Amplexus is axilliary, with males holding females at the level of the armpit.

The foam-nest is semiglobular in shape with a flat bottom attached to the substrate. Fresh foam is white, becoming dirty white or brown. Trees overhanging water tanks and pools are used as spawning sites. Size of foam-nest: 65-92 mm in diameter, eggs are pure white and 1.2-1.5 mm in diameter; up to 850 eggs in a single foam-nest. Tadpoles take 55 days for complete metamorphosis, feeding on desmids, diatoms and algae.

Relation to Humans
During drier periods, P. maculatus can be found inside houses, especially bathrooms.

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants
Long-distance pesticides, toxins, and pollutants

P. maculatus is capable of a rapid adaptation to substrate color. Also, this species is often confused with Polypedates leucomystax.


Anders, C. (2002). Biologie und Systematik der Amphibien Nepals. Veröffentlichungen aus dem Fuhlrott-Museum, Wuppertal, Germany.

De Silva, A., Molur, S., and Walker, S. (2000). CAMP Report for Amphibians and Reptiles of Sri Lanka. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Dutta, S.K. and Manamendra-Arachchi, K. (1996). The Amphibian Fauna of Sri Lanka. Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Edwards, S. R. (1971). ''Taxonomic notes on South American Colostethus with descriptions of two new species.'' Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 84, 147–162.

Manamendra-Arachchi, K. (2000). ''Know your frog.'' Sri Lanka Nature, 2(5), 4-16.

Schleich, H. H., and Kästle, W. (2002). Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein, Germany.

Originally submitted by: peter janzen (first posted 2005-05-17)
Edited by: Kellie Whittaker, Michelle S. Koo (2022-08-18)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Polypedates maculatus: Chunam Tree Frog <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jun 17, 2024.

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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2024. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 17 Jun 2024.

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