Nectophrynoides tornieri
Tornier’s Forest Toad, Kijula
family: Bufonidae

© 2011 Iris Starnberger (1 of 2)

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Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
CITES Appendix I
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species occurs in the East Usambara, Uluguru, Nguru, Nguu, Mahenge and Udzungwa Mountains, in eastern and southern Tanzania. Some localities have been removed from this concept: the West Usambara subpopulation was allocated N. vestergaardi, and the Ukaguru subpopulation to N. paulae and N. laticeps. This species was mistakenly recorded as occuring in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania, but this has not been verified and these records have been removed from this assessments; similarly, reports that it occurs on Mount Rungwe need confirmation. It occurs from 300 m (Kimboza Forest in the Uluguru foothills) up to at least 1,500 m asl. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 48,562 km2 and area of occurrence (AOO) is 2,879 km2.

Habitat and Ecology

It lives in lowland and montane forest where it is found low in the vegetation and on the ground. It can tolerate some disturbance to its habitat and can survive in banana plantations, but probably not in very open areas. It breeds by internal fertilization, the females retaining the larvae internally in the oviduct until little toadlets are born.


It is one of the most abundant amphibian species in the overall Eastern Arc mountain range. However, its population is suspected to be both severely fragmented and decreasing due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation.

Population Trend


Major Threats

Its habitat is being disturbed, and to a lesser extent lost, especially at lower altitudes, due to agricultural encroachment, wood extraction and expanding human settlements.

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
It occurs in the Udzungwa National Park, Uluguru Nature Reserve, Nilo Nature Reserve and Amani Nature Reserve. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.

Conservation Needed
Improved protection of its habitat and management of protected areas is required.

Research Needed
Further information is required on the species' distribution and population status.

Red List Status

Least Concern (LC)


Listed as Least Concern due to its wide distribution and presumed large population.

Taxonomic Notes

Further taxonomic investigations are required on this species as more than one taxon may be represented (S. Loader pers. comm. June 2012).


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2016. Nectophrynoides tornieri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54844A17179538. .Downloaded on 20 February 2019


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