Diagnosis: S. anotis can be differentiated from Wernia preussi by its presence of warts and distinct parotoid glands. It is distinguished from B. taitanus by a strongly pointed snout, less oblique lores and larger paratoid glands (Boulenger 1907).
Coloration: The dorsum and sides of the head are blackish or light colored with blackish cross-bars (Boulenger 1907). The venter is yellow and speckled with black (Boulenger 1907; Channing 1978).
Tadpole Morphology: As a tadpole, it is known to have a unique crown on the top of its head (Cannatella 1986). This crown possibly acts as an accessory respiratory surface (Channing 1993). The crown is a ring of expanded epithelial tissue around the eyes and nostrils. In comparison to other Bufo tadpoles, Stephopaedes anotis has no mental gap in its oral papillae (Channing 1978).
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Mozambique, Zimbabwe
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Relation to Humans
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Boulenger, G. A. (1907). ''Descriptions of a new toad and a new amphisbaenid from Mashonaland.'' Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 7(20), 47-49.
Cannatella, D. C. (1986). ''A new genus of bufonid (Anura) from South America, and phylogenetic relationships of the neotropical genera.'' Herpetological Review, 42, 197-205.
Channing, A. (1993). ''Observations on the natural history of Stephopaedes anotis (Bufonidae).'' Journal of Herpetology, 27, 213-214.
McDiarmid, R. W., and Altig, R. (1999). Tadpoles: the Biology of Anuran Larvae. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
Müller, H. Measey, G. J., and Malonza, P. K. (2005). ''Tadpole of Bufo taitanus (Anura: Bufonidae) with notes on its systematic significance and life history.'' Journal of Herpetology, 39, 138-141.
Stuart, S., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J., Cox, N., Berridge, R., Ramani, P., Young, B. (eds) (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Edicions, IUCN, and Conservation International, Barcelona, Spain; Gland, Switzerland; and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Wells, K. D. (2007). The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.
Written by Wesley Singer (wsinger AT csustan.edu), CSU Stanislaus
First submitted 2011-06-23
Edited by Brent Nguyen (2012-03-19)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2012 Mertensophryne anotis: Chirinda Toad <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/425> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jan 15, 2021.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2021. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 15 Jan 2021.
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