This species' geographic range extends from Los Chimalapas region in south-central Oaxaca, Mexico, south and east along the Atlantic versant as far as the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes in Guatemala. It occurs at 1,000-1,600m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
This species is mainly associated with high humid areas in cloud forest and, in Mexico, pine-oak-Liquidambar forests. It breeds in streams.
It is rare across its range.
The major threats to this species are habitat loss, due to agriculture and human settlement, and water pollution.
The conservation, expansion and management of cloud forest are key measures to preserve this species since it has not been recorded from any of the Biosphere reserves in Chiapas, Mexico. It also does not occur in any protected area in Guatemala.
Red List Status
Listed as Vulnerable because its Area of Occupancy is less than 2,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat in Mexico and Honduras.
Georgina Santos-Barrera, Manuel Acevedo 2004. Incilius macrocristatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54698A11178095. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54698A11178095.en .Downloaded on 19 February 2019