Species Description: Rada M, Dias PHDS, Perez-Gonzalez JL, Anganoy-Criollo M, Rueda-Solano LA, Pinto-E MA, Quintero LM, Vargas-Salinas F, Grant T 2019 The poverty of adult morphology: Bioacoustics, genetics, and internal tadpolemorphology reveal a new species of glassfrog (Anura: Centrolenidae: Ikakogi) from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0215349
Dorsally, the larval body is elongated and elliptical. Laterally, the body is elliptical and depressed. On average, at Gosner’s stage 25 the total length is 36.4 mm, body length is 10.7 mm, and the tail length is 25.7 mm. The nares are located dorsally, as are the eyes. The body is widest in the middle where the short, tubular, and sinistral spiracle is located. The oral disc is 47.6% of the body width. The mouth is lined by a single row of 64 marginal papillae, and lacks submarginal papillae. The jaw sheaths are serrated and keratinized, as well as uniquely arched (Rada et al. 2019).
This species differs from almost all other species of Centrolenid by the fact that it lacks vomerine teeth, adult males have humeral spines, the tympanum is not visible, and it has a unique coloration pattern. However, I. ispacue appears identical to I. tayrona and they can only be differentiated by their calls. The call of I. ispacue is characterized by a single, short, high-pitched trill and a few pulses, whereas I. tayrona has a longer, non-pulsed call (Rada et al. 2019).
In larvae, the mouth part helps differentiate the species. The jaw sheaths are arched instead of M-shaped like other species (Rada et al. 2019)
In life, I. ispacue is bright green on the dorsal side with some very small black dots. There is some yellow on the legs and around the toes. The flanks are a creamy yellow color, and they have a very small lateral row of white dots that are enameled. Ventrally, they range from pale green, cream to white, including the limbs. The belly is translucent making the internal organs of the frog visible. The bones are mainly white, but some parts are very light green. In preservative, this species is a cream or very pale lavender color on the dorsal side including the head, body, and limbs. The underside of the body, including the throat, hands, feet and chest, are a cream color and there is a very faint row of white dots on the flanks (Rada et al. 2019).
The coloration of the larvae is reddish or pink, due to the skin being highly vascular, with some gray punctuations, mostly between the eyes. The tail fins are transparent, and the body has a longitudinal midline brownish stripe. In preservative, they maintain the same pattern but are less pigmented on the back than tadpoles belonging to other members of the family (Rada et al. 2019).
Only variations that were found were that females are about 2.3% larger than the males, and that tadpole could vary slightly in their reddish pink color (Rada et al. 2019).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Males call along streams from leaf surfaces, close to the ground. The call consists of a single high pitched note, including pulses, with a dominant frequency of 3129 HZ (Rada et al. 2019).
Females lay their eggs on either side of leaves that overhang streams. Females also care for and guard their egg clutches. Each egg clutch contains around 44 - 62 eggs that are very light cream or green colored. But, as the embryos develop they become reddish or pink. The eggs are laid within a clear jelly-like substance. The clutch takes on a ring-like shape due to the lack of jelly or eggs in the center of the egg mass (Rada et al. 2019).
Tadpoles are found in fallen leaves and sand in small pools along the edges of streams. There has been some evidence supporting the theory that larvae have special features for burrowing. For example, Ikakogi larvae have long and laterally compressed crania, the superior part of the skull, strong anterior cartilages, and the absence of lungs. Lungs in tadpoles help with buoyancy, so the absence of them is most likely a fossorial adaptation, as they do not require lungs for burrowing (Rada et al. 2019).
At the time of the species description, the only other species in their genus was I. tayrona. The two species were differentiated based on genetic differentiation of cytB mtDNA, bioacoustics, and internal larval morphology (Rada et al 2019).
The species epithet, "ispacue" means “twin of” from the Kogi words “tshi” and “spacue”. This name is in reference to the identical morphology of I. ispacue and I. tayrona (Rada et al 2019).
Rada, M., Dos Santos Dias, P.H., Pérez-Gonzalez, J.L., Anganoy-Criollo, M., Rueda-Solano, L.A., Pinto-E, M.A., Quintero, L.M, Vargas-Salinas, F., Grant, T. (2019). “The poverty of adult morphology: bioacoustics, genetics, and internal tadpole morphology reveal a new species of glassfrog (Anura: Centrolenidae: Ikakogi) from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia.” PLOS ONE 14(5): e0215349. [link]
Originally submitted by: Elisabeth Kolkman, Jacqueline Valdovinos, Madison Tse (2022-03-28)
Description by: Elisabeth Kolkman, Jacqueline Valdovinos, Madison Tse (updated 2022-03-28)
Distribution by: Elisabeth Kolkman, Jacqueline Valdovinos, Madison Tse (updated 2022-03-28)
Life history by: Elisabeth Kolkman, Jacqueline Valdovinos, Madison Tse (updated 2022-03-28)
Comments by: Elisabeth Kolkman, Jacqueline Valdovinos, Madison Tse (updated 2022-03-28)
Edited by: Ann T. Chang (2022-03-28)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2022 Ikakogi ispacue <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/9001> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed May 17, 2022.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2022. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 17 May 2022.
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