Ichthyophis hypocyaneus
Javan Caecilian
family: Ichthyophiidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Data Deficient (DD)
Other International Status Data Deficient
National Status None
Regional Status None



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

A small (15-70 cm) caecilian with a distinct head and eyes, large mouth, short tail, and transverse cloaca. Color ranges from dark brown to bluish black, with a bright yellow lateral stripe. Body annuli may be incomplete and range in number up to 300. Two series of denticles on lower jaw, and a tentacle between the eye and nostril.

Distribution and Habitat

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Indonesia


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.
Found only on the island of Java, Indonesia, this species inhabits moist environments in both forested and cultivated areas up to 100m elevation.

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The large, oval eggs are protected by the female. Embryos have 3 pairs of external gills. The aquatic larvae possess a pair of spiracles behind the head and tailfins, and are found in small streams under stones and leaf litter. Adults feed on small blind snakes and worms.

Trends and Threats

Relation to Humans

Possible reasons for amphibian decline

General habitat alteration and loss
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Intensified agriculture or grazing
Drainage of habitat
Dams changing river flow and/or covering habitat
Subtle changes to necessary specialized habitat
Habitat fragmentation
Local pesticides, fertilizers, and pollutants


''Biodiversity Information Sharing Service (BISS): Ichthyophis hypocyaneus.'' Asean Regional Centre for Biodiversity Conservation. 6 Feb. 2006 .

''IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Ichthyophis hypocyaneus.'' IUCN. 6 Feb. 2006 .

Iskandar, D. T. (1998). The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Centre for Biology-LIPI, Bogor, Indonesia.

Written by Janel Marcelino (janel_m AT, Amphibaweb intern
First submitted 2006-02-08
Edited by Tom Devitt (2007-02-14)

Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2007 Ichthyophis hypocyaneus: Javan Caecilian <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jun 2, 2020.

Feedback or comments about this page.


Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2020. <> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 2 Jun 2020.

AmphibiaWeb's policy on data use.