Hyperolius raymondi Conradie, Branch & Tolley, 2013
Raymond's Reed Frog
|Species Description: Conradie W, Branch WR, Tolley KA 2013. Fifty shades of grey: giving colour to the poorly known Angolan Ashy reed frog (Hyperoliidae: Hyperolius cinereus), with the description of a new species. Zootaxa 3635: 201-223.|
© 2013 Werner Conradie (1 of 4)
The tadpole is round and oval-shaped, with its body a little wider than high (body height to body width ratio is 0.8). From the lateral view, the tadpole’s snout is slanted and its mouth is near its underside. Its nares are round and are located closer to the snout than the eyes. Its lateral eyes are a fair size and have a slightly upward directed oval opening at the same height as the middle of the lower part of the caudal muscle. The ratio of the tail length to its body length is around 2:1, and is two-thirds of the total length. The tail muscles are broad but gradually taper so that the tip is slightly pointed. The tail fins are located midway down the tail, and the upper fin does not extend onto the body but is slightly convex at the end of the tail, as is the lower fin. Its body is dark brown with random scattered dark spots. The ventrum is paler than the dark dorsum, but has scattered darker pigmentation. The tail muscles have more pigments than the fins. There are three distinct darker pigmented stripes that run from the front part of the tail muscle to about midway in the tail. The fins are semitransparent and have uneven spots (Conradie et al. 2013).
All Hyperolius are characterized by horizontal pupils, expanded and rounded terminal discs on the fingers and toes, hidden tympanum, smooth skin, and males having one vocal sac with an oval gular flap and free lateral and posterior margins. Hyperolius raymondi can be differentiated from other Hyperolius species by comparing its traits to the distinguishable traits of other Hyperolius. First, the throat of H. raymondi does not have any spines. Secondly, its color can vary from other Hyperolius taxa (also see coloration section below); its ventrum side is a uniform yellow color without darker pigmentation, it does not have a pale triangle on its snout, its green belly skin is not translucent, and there is no light in its heel spot. The dorsalateral stripes vary (also see variation section below) since there are two stripes present that are darker in color than its background, and there is no lighter stripe below the dark dorsolateral band. There is a uniform green coloration in the darker bands that is not present in other Hyperolius taxa (Conradie et al. 2013).
While alive, H. raymondi has a dorsum that is lime green with each side displaying two distinct dark dorsolateral stripes. The lower stripe extends from the tip of the snout to the groin, passing by the eye and the upper stripe starts in the anterior corner of the eyelid, extends toward the back and almost merges with lower stripe. Black spots that vary in size appear on the lower back by the upper stripes. These stripes and spots are sexually dimorphic since only the males display them and not the females. The ventrum and the ventral surfaces of the limbs are yellow and do not have markings on them. The fingertips and toe tips are yellow. The inner thighs are red, and the upper thighs and forearms are light green with dispersed black markings that the palms of the hands and soles of the feet also have. The iris is bright yellow. In preservative, the ventrum fades and is light beige instead of yellow. The dorsum is ashy-blue with a pair of black dorsolateral stripes (Conradie et al. 2013).
All male paratypes have similar ventral and dorsal coloration, but there is individual variation in the stripes on its backside. The only female found is similar in color of the H. cinereus, with a blue-green dorsum, yellow belly, and red inner thighs. The two collected juveniles were bicolored, with darker side markings on the snout (Conradie et al. 2013).
Distribution and Habitat
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Phylogenetically, it is a sister to H. cinereus, differing by 3.7% sequence divergence (Conradie et al. 2013).
This species is named after Raymond F. Laurent, who was the first one to record H. raymondi. Previously, it was known as H. cinereus (Conradie et al. 2013).
Conradie, W., Branch, W.R., Tolley, K.A. (2013). ''Fifty Shades of Grey: giving colour to the poorly known Angolan Ashy reed frog (Hyperoliidae: Hyperolius cinereus), with the description of a new species.'' Zootaxa, 3635(3), 201-223.
Originally submitted by: Samantha Morco (first posted 2013-11-06)
Edited by: Ann T Chang (2013-11-07)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2013 Hyperolius raymondi: Raymond's Reed Frog <https://amphibiaweb.org/species/7996> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Sep 27, 2023.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2023. <https://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 27 Sep 2023.
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