This species is found along the Amazonian slopes of the northeastern Andes and in the Huancabamba depression in northern Peru (Cajamarca and Piura Regions). It occurs between 1,920–3,100 m asl, reaching the summit of the cordillera between Chanaque and Huancabamba (Duellman 2004). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 790 km2 and it occurs at less than five threat-defined locations.
Habitat and Ecology
This cloud forest species is active along streams by day, and has been found under rocks within and along streams at night (Duellman 2004). Eggs are presumably laid in leaf-litter on the forest floor; once tadpoles hatch, adults transport them to muddy pool habitats in streams to complete development. Larval transport and free-swimming tadpoles of this species have been recorded in February (Duellman 2004).
The species is not abundant. While there is no direct information, due to the continuing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Where this species has been recorded in the Huancabamba depression, it is threatened by deforestation and agricultural activities (mostly cultivation of potatoes). The fungal disease chytridiomycosis was first reported from Peru in 1998 (Lips et al. 2008), and has been associated with severe declines and extinctions among Andean amphibians, especially of high-elevation, stream-breeding frogs with small ranges (Whittaker and Vrendenberg 2010), such as this one. It is however unknown whether this disease represents a specific threat to this species. As a cloud forest species of mountain summits, this frog may be susceptible to the effects of climate change, either through desiccation of its habitat or from the invasion of species from lower elevations into newly-suitable area; however, further research is needed to determine the impacts of this potential threat factor.
This species is not known to occur in any protected areas (Aguilar et al. 2010).
Improved habitat protection is required at sites where this species is known to occur.
Further research is needed into the limits of its range, population trends, use, threats and tolerance of habitat modification.
Red List Status
Data Deficient (DD)
Listed as Endangered because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 790 km2, it occurs in fewer than five threat-defined locations, and there is ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat in Huancabamba.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Hyloxalus sylvaticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T55154A89200227. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T55154A89200227.en .Downloaded on 19 February 2019