Eurycea tynerensis
Oklahoma Salamander
Subgenus: Typhlotriton
family: Plethodontidae
subfamily: Hemidactyliinae

© 2007 Stanley Trauth (1 of 10)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Near Threatened (NT)
NatureServe Status Use NatureServe Explorer to see status.
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: United States


View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.


From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

According to Bury, Dodd and Fellers (1980), the range of this species includes the drainages of the Neosho and Illinois Rivers, the Springfield Plateau section of the Ozark plateaus of south-western Missouri (McDonald County), north-western Arkansas (Benton, Washington, and Carroll Counties), and north-eastern Oklahoma (Adair, Cherokee, Delaware, Mayes, and Ottawa Counties), USA, at elevations below 305m asl. Petranka (1998) also indicated that the range includes eastern Oklahoma, south-western Missouri, and north-western Arkansas (but see Taxonomy).

Habitat and Ecology

Its habitat is small, clear, spring-fed streams with temperatures normally under 24°C, with a coarse substrate of sand, gravel, or bedrock, where it hides under or among rocks or in submerged vegetation (Bury, Dodd and Fellers 1980). It is most commonly found in shallow (less than 10mm deep), slowly moving water with medium-sized rocks and with high densities of aquatic invertebrates (Tumlison, Cline and Zwank 1990b,c). It lives below the substrate surface during droughts, and it may use karst systems to move within or between stream systems (Tumlison, Cline and Zwank 1990c). Eggs are laid on the undersides of rocks.


Its total adult population size is unknown, but it has been found at 50 of 213 sites examined in three states.

Population Trend


Major Threats

This species is threatened by direct habitat destruction (for example by flooding by impoundments), and by activities (such as agriculture, urbanization, stream channeling, and gravel removal) that result in silting or pollution of the aquatic habitat (Bury, Dodd and Fellers 1980).

Conservation Actions

This species requires habitat protection and more research on its population status and trends.

Red List Status

Near Threatened (NT)


Listed as Near Threatened because its Extent of Occurrence is probably not much greater than 20,000 km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat are probably declining, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable.

Taxonomic Notes

Preliminary electrophoretic data indicate that Eurycea tynerensis is restricted to a few counties in eastern Oklahoma; populations in Arkansas and Missouri are not genetically distinct from E. multiplicata griseogaster (Wilkinson, in Figg 1991). For this assessment, we retain the traditional understanding of E. tynerensis as occurring in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Missouri, pending resolution of this issue.


Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Eurycea tynerensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T59277A11908828. .Downloaded on 20 January 2019


IUCN Terms of Use