Duttaphrynus stomaticus
Indus Valley Toad
family: Bufonidae

© 1988 Muhammad Sharif Khan (1 of 7)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
Other International Status Toad of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent
National Status common
Regional Status common



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is widely distributed in Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Within Iran the species occurs at the border with Afghanistan and Pakistan. In Afghanistan it is known from south of the Hindu Kush in the southeastern part of the country, and along the Helmand River west of the Sistan basin (Leviton and Anderson 1970). The only report of this species from Sri Lanka is that by Kirtisinghe (1957) who collected three specimens from Mutwal, a coastal suburb north of Colombo, in 1932. Kirtisinghe (1957) additionally suggested that this species might have been inadvertently transported from India by means of sailing vessels. There is a small disjunct population in northern Oman at Wadi Jubaitha, 20km east of Mahdah (Theodore Papenfuss pers. comm., September 2008). Its altitudinal range is from sea level to 4,500m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

Found in a wide variety of habitats including; open plains, grasslands, scrubland, forest, suitable agricultural land and human habitations. Breeding occurs in permanent and seasonal pools, seasonal streams and slow-flowing streams. Adults hide under rocks and in crevices. It is a very adaptable species that may be found in houses.


It is a locally common species throughout its range.

Population Trend


Major Threats

There are no major threats to this adaptable species. Localized threats over much of its range include loss of habitat to infrastructure development; intensification of agriculture; pollution of wetlands and land by agrochemicals; traffic related mortality; and long-term drought.

Conservation Actions

The species is present in many protected areas. It perhaps occurs in three protected areas in Iran.

Red List Status

Least Concern (LC)


Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.


Matthias Stöck, Muhammad Sharif Khan, Theodore Papenfuss, Steven Anderson, Sergius Kuzmin, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Sushil Dutta, Annemarie Ohler, Saibal Sengupta, Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi, Anslem de Silva, Steven Anderson, Mozafar Sharifi 2009. Duttaphrynus stomaticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T54768A11201081. .Downloaded on 21 February 2019


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