Desmognathus monticola
Seal Salamander
Subgenus: Desmognathus
family: Plethodontidae
subfamily: Plethodontinae

© 2007 Bill Peterman (1 of 66)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
NatureServe Status Use NatureServe Explorer to see status.
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: United States



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species can be found in the eastern USA from southwestern Pennsylvania southwest in uplands through West Virginia, western Maryland, western and northern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, western South Carolina, and northern Georgia to central Alabama and disjunctive to southern Alabama and the extreme western tip of the Florida panhandle (Conant and Collins 1991, Petranka 1998). Evidently it does not occur north or west of the Ohio River in the northern part of the range.

Habitat and Ecology

It can be found in mountain streams, small rocky spring-fed brooks in hardwood-shaded ravines, seepages, muddy section of streams. Hides under rocks or moss, and in burrows in mud banks. Sometimes perches on wet rocks. Eggs are laid on undersides of rocks or leaves in water or seepages; also under or in logs near water.


Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 100,000. In the southern Appalachians, populations fluctuated over a 20-year period (early 1970s to early 1990s), with no apparent long-term trend (Hairston and Wiley 1993).

Population Trend


Major Threats

No major pervasive threats are known.

Conservation Actions

None needed. It occurs in many protected areas.

Red List Status

Least Concern (LC)


Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.


Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Desmognathus monticola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T59252A11906743. .Downloaded on 15 February 2019


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