Bolitoglossa paraensis

Subgenus: Eladinea
family: Plethodontidae
subfamily: Hemidactyliinae
Species Description: Unterstein, W. 1930. Beschreibung zweier neuer Molche der Gattung Oedipus. Zoologischer Anzeiger 87: 270–272.

© 2008 Selvino Neckel (1 of 10)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Data Deficient (DD)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Brazil



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

The type locality is "Sta. Isabel bei Para", Brazil. The species is distributed over the Amazon Basin of Brazil, according to Frost (2007). According to M.S. Hoogmoed (pers. comm. 2008) at least 3, possibly 4, species are distributed in Brazilian Amazônia and B. paraensis only occurs in eastern Pará State between Belém and Bragança, below 50 m above sea level, and in Amapá, in the Guianan Shield. All other records from Brazilian Amazônia concern other taxa. The species found in Acre may be Bolitoglossa altamazonica (S. Neckel Oliveira, pers. comm. 2008).

Habitat and Ecology

The species is known to occur in lowland Amazonian rainforests. It occurs primarily on bushes and tree trunks of the primary forest understory. Clutch size can vary between 8-15 eggs (S. Neckel Oliveira, pers. comm. 2008). Specimens of a related taxon in western Brazilian Amazonia were mostly found in leaf litter on the forest floor (M.S. Hoogmoed, pers. comm. 2008).


This is considered to be a common species in the forest fragments in and around Belém do Pará. Taxa confounded with it appear to be rare in other localities (the region of Juruti, Pará, and states of Amapá and Amazonas: Urucu, Benjamin Constant and Juruá) (S. Neckel Oliveira, pers. comm. 2008).

Population Trend


Major Threats

Deforestation due to urban growth in the region of Belém and bauxite mining in the region of Juruti. Other localities are well preserved (S. Neckel Oliveira, pers. comm. 2008). The habitat of a related taxon in western Brazilian Amazonia is threatened (or already destroyed) by expanding agricultural activities (M.S. Hoogmoed, pers. comm. 2008).

Conservation Actions

One population in Amapá is close to Tumucumaque National Park. Other populations are not close to protected areas (S. Neckel Oliveira, pers. comm. 2008).

Red List Status

Data Deficient (DD)


Listed as Data Deficient since it has only recently been resurrected as a valid species, and there is still very little known about its extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, status and ecological requirements.

Taxonomic Notes

In the subgenus Eladinea and in the adspersa species group. Parra-Olea et al. (2004) removed Bolitoglossa paraensis from synonymy with Bolitoglossa altamazonica. M.S. Hoogmoed (pers. comm. 2008) indicates that B. paraensis is a complex of 3-4 species. The nominal species occurs between Belém and Bragança, with one outlying record in Amapá, all other records from Brazilian Amazônia would be other taxa. However, data on habitat, habits and threats of these taxa are included as separate notes under B. paraensis, but their distribution has not been mapped, the map only reflects the known distribution of B. paraensis. Work on the resolution of the taxonomy of this complex is underway.


Selvino Neckel Oliveira, Marinus Hoogmoed 2010. Bolitoglossa paraensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T135735A4195091. .Downloaded on 20 February 2019


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