Bolitoglossa insularis

Subgenus: Bolitoglossa
family: Plethodontidae
subfamily: Hemidactyliinae
Species Description: Sunyer J, Lotzkat S, Hertz A, Wake DB, Aleman BM, Robleo SJ, Koehler G 2008 Two new species of salamanders (genus Bolitoglossa) from southern Nicaragua (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 88:319-328.

© 2015 Tariq Stark (1 of 19)
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Vulnerable (VU)
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None



View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

From the IUCN Red List Species Account:


Range Description

This species is known from only one site at Volcán Maderas, Isla de Ometepe, Departamento de Rivas, Nicaragua (Sunyer et al. 2008). It is restricted to the premontane slopes of the southern volcano on Ometepe Island, the largest in Nicaragua (Sunyer et al. 2008), at an elevation of between 800 and 1,070 m asl.

Habitat and Ecology

It is known from undisturbed premontane forest; the holotype was found on a bush at 1.5 m from the forest floor (Sunyer et al. 2008). As with other congeners, it is presumed to breed by direct development (Bolaños et al. 2004).


It was described from a single individual, and it appears to be the only Bolitoglossa species on the island of Ometepe. It is also the only Bolitoglossa species found in Nicaragua at mid-premontane level (Sunyer et al. 2008). There have been several other unpublished records of this species (around 20 additional records in the last 5 years) from tourists and park rangers at the type locality (J. Sunyer pers. comm. October 2012).

Population Trend


Major Threats

This species occurs in the Ometepe Island Biosphere Reserve and the forest is in good condition. However, there are increasing threats from agriculture in the lowland areas, which in the future may encroach on the elevation where this salamander is found (J. Sunyer pers. comm. October 2012).

Conservation Actions

Although it occurs in the Ometepe Island Biosfere Reserve, specific protection is needed to prevent habitat destruction from expanding agriculture. Further surveys are required to better understand this species' population status and natural history.

Red List Status

Vulnerable (VU)


Listed as Vulnerable given that it is known from a restricted area and single threat-defined location based on the potential future encroachment of agricultural activities into its pristine forest habitat in Ometepe Island, Nicaragua. If the threat occurs, the species would immediately qualify for a Critically Endangered listing.


IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2013. Bolitoglossa insularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T18435631A19365538. .Downloaded on 19 February 2019


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