© 2019 Ann Chang (1 of 44)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: United States
U.S. state distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: California, Oregon
Clouded salamanders occur in high densities in old growth forests (Corn and Bury, 1991) in recently cut or burned areas, in association with stumps, decaying logs, and coarse, woody debris (van Denburgh, 1916; Fitch, 1936; McKenzie and Storm, 1970; Whitaker et al., 1986; Bury and Corn, 1988; Welsh and Lind, 1988, 1991). Welsh and Lind (1988) found that mesic forest stands had significantly higher capture rates of A. ferreus than did drier stands. This species tends not to be found in dense forests (Wood, 1939). Individuals have been found up to 1525m elevation (Beatty, 1979).
Populations have certainly been lost due to forestry management practices and to urban sprawl.
Abundance. Clouded salamanders are typical inhabitants of old growth forests (Corn and Bury, 1991), especially in edge habitats (e.g., forest clearings) with downed or standing decaying trees and stumps. Habitat Requirements: Juvenile. Juvenile clouded salamanders prefer bark litter over rock or leaf litter (McKenzie and Storm, 1970). Subadults select bark litter at higher temperatures (20C, 25C), and show no preference between rock or bark litter at lower temperatures (10C, McKenzie and Storm, 1970).
Habitat Requirements: Adult. Adults are found associated with stumps and logs in Douglas fir forests, in crevices in rock outcrops and road cuts, and in talus (Van Denburgh, 1916; Wood, 1939; Lowe, 1950; Maser and Trappe, 1984; Nussbaum, 1983; Leonard et al., 1993; Jackman, 1999(1998)). Animals are most commonly found in decaying logs and stumps with intact bark–either under the bark, within the log, or under the log (Bury and Corn, 1988; Corn and Bury, 1991). Habitats with such logs are often associated with forest edges (Myers and Maslin, 1948; Stebbins, 1951). For example, McKenzie and Storm (1970) found clouded salamanders in stumps and fire-charred logs of Douglas fir associated with forest clearings and road banks. The preferred type of wood is Douglas fir; individuals are less commonly found in Port Orford cedar, alder, and redwood (Myers and Maslin, 1948; Wake, 1965). Individuals have been found up to 6.1m above the ground in dead stumps (Van Denburgh, 1916; Slevin, 1928). Based on recent work documenting the presence of the wandering salamander in the forest canopy, it is probable that the clouded salamander occupies similar habitat in its range (Jim C. Spickler, personal communication). In a microhabitat selection experiment, adults consistently selected against leaf litter and showed equal preference for bark litter and rock (McKenzie and Storm, 1970). Jackman, (1999(1998)) suggest that there may be a difference in habitat preference between clouded and wandering salamanders–-in northwestern California clouded salamanders are commonly found associated with both decaying logs and rocky slopes, while wandering salamanders are almost exclusively found associated with decaying logs, not rocks.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
Females lay eggs in late June and July and hatchlings emerge in late August or September (Petranka, 1998). Egg clutches have been found in rotting logs (Storm, 1947). Reported clutch sizes vary from 9-17 eggs (Storm, 1947). An ovarian count reported 12 eggs (Fitch, 1936). If the reproductive biology of the clouded salamander is similar to that of the wandering salamander, brood sites occur in the forest canopy as well as in decaying logs (Welsh and Wilson, 1995). McKenzie (1970) found little seasonal variation in nale reproductive characteristics. Sperm can be found in vasa deferentia in every month except September.
Clutches have been found without a parent in attendance (A. ferreus, Storm, 1947), with a female in attendance (A. vagrans, Dunn, 1942), and with both a male and a female in attendance (A. ferreus, Storm, 1947).
Trends and Threats
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
General habitat alteration and loss
Interspecific Associations/Exclusions. Clouded and wandering salamanders overlap in a zone < 15 km wide in northwestern California. Jackman, (1999(1998)) report slight evidence of introgression, but clear hybrid individuals have never been identified. The range of the clouded salamander also overlaps with its congener, the black salamander (A. flavipunctatus) (Fitch, 1936; Myers and Maslin, 1948; Stebbins, 1985), especially in the Klamath River valley, but the black salamander occurs in hotter, drier regions (for example, further up the Klamath River valley). Mitochondrial, allozyme, and karyotypic data distinguish A. ferreus from A. vagrans (Sessions and Kezer, 1987; Jackman, 1999(1998). Morphologically, these two species are similar (Beatty, 1979).
Feeding Behavior. As with most salamanders, clouded salamanders are generalist feeders. Adults primarily eat isopods (sowbugs), hymenopterans (ants), and coleopterans but their diet also includes an important assortment of other insects (e.g., dipterans, isopterans (termites)), and mites, spiders, pseudoscorpions, centipedes, and millipedes (Fitch, 1936; Storm and Aller, 1947; Bury and Martin, 1973; Whitaker et al., 1986). Whitaker et al. (1986) found no significant differences between the diets of adult males and females. Hatchlings (< 20 mm SVL) eat small prey, primarily mites, springtails, flies, and small beetles (Whitaker, et al., 1986). As juveniles get larger, they switch to eating larger prey items such as sowbugs, larger beetles, and earwigs (Whitaker et al., 1986). Adults occasionally consume shed skin (Whitaker et al., 1986).
Predators. Poorly documented, but Petranka (1998) suggests predators of Aneides sp. include mammals, woodland birds, and snakes.
Anti-Predator Mechanisms. Several anti-predatory behaviors have been observed in the clouded or wandering salamander when individuals are startled or attacked: crawling away rapidly, immobility, a defensive posture (raising the body and undulating the tail), and flipping around followed by immobility (Fitch, 1936; Brodie, 1977). Skin secretions are thought to be noxious (Brodie, 1977).
Parasites. One species of nematode has been identified in the clouded salamander (Lehman, 1954; Goldberg et al., 1998).
See another account at californiaherps.com.
Brodie, E. D., Jr. (1977). "Salamander antipredator postures." Copeia, 1977, 523-535.
Corn, P. S. and Bury, R. B. (1991). ''Terrestrial amphibian communities in the Oregon Coast Range.'' Wildlife and Vegetation of Unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests. L. F. Ruggiero, K. B. Aubry, A. B. Carey, and M. H. Huff, eds., USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-285, 304-317.
Written by Yair Chaver (yairchav AT unlink4.berkeley.edu), U.C. Berkeley
First submitted 1999-03-01
Edited by Duncan Parks (1999); David Wake (2000) (2004-04-05)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2004 Aneides ferreus: Clouded Salamander <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/3935> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Jul 6, 2020.
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Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2020. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 6 Jul 2020.
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