This species is found in North America from Labrador, Hudson Bay area, and Manitoba to northern Texas, Louisiana, central Alabama, northern Georgia, and North Carolina (Conant and Collins 1991). It is absent from most of the Coastal Plain.
Habitat and Ecology
This toad occurs in a wide variety of habitats, ranging from forests to prairies. It hides under objects or burrows underground when inactive. In New York, distribution is apparently influenced by soil pH (Wyman 1988). It breeds in nearly any slow or standing body of water, including both permanent and temporary pools, generally in sites with few if any fishes (e.g., Holomuzki 1995). Eggs are laid and larvae develop in shallow areas. In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992).
This species is widespread and abundant. It is stable overall, with localized declines.
There are no major threats.
Research is needed in population size and trends.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of sub-populations and localities, large population size and occurrence in a wide range of habitats.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2015. Anaxyrus americanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T54570A56843565. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T54570A56843565.en .Downloaded on 17 December 2018