© PENSOFT Publishers (1 of 3)
Distribution and Habitat
Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lebanon, Russian Federation, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey
According to allozyme data, Bufo bufo from the Anatolian part of Turkey is closer to B. verrucosissimus, in comparison with B. bufo or B. spinosus (from Tunisia, for example). Therefore, we consider B. verrucosissimus but not B. bufo to inhabit this part of Turkey, as well as Syria and Lebanon (though as of Sept. 2008 there are not yet published records from Lebanon). Also, despite Baloutch and Kami (1995) providing a record for B. verrucosissimus in northern Iran, Litvinchuk has studied photos provided by Kami, and has concluded that these specimens are Bufo eichwaldi (Litvinchuk, pers. comm. 2008).
The Caucasian Toad lives in mountain coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests upward to the subalpine belt. The toad prefers wet, shaded sites in forests, bushlands, their edges and glades. Holes under logs and stones are used as hiding places. Some specimens were found in hollows of slantwise staying trees. Reproduction occurs in clear, flowing or semi-flowing water, mainly in brooks, springs and small rivers, but also in puddles, ponds, lakes and seepage pools.
Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors
The clutch contains 870-10500 eggs arranged in 3 rows. The spawn consists of two long, to 12 m, strings. Metamorphosis occurs in June - August. Sexual maturity is attained at 2-7 years (in females later than in males); maximum longevity is estimated at 10 years.
Tadpoles feed mainly on detritus and algae. Recently metamorphosed toadlets eat mainly Collembola of different families, small beetles and ants. Adult toads eat a wide variety of invertebrates with a prevalence of Myriapoda, caterpillars, Coleoptera and Formicidae. The main part of their diet consists of terrestrial crawling invertebrates.
Trends and Threats
Relation to Humans
Possible reasons for amphibian decline
Habitat modification from deforestation, or logging related activities
Baloutch, M. and Kami, H. G. (1995). Amphibians of Iran. Tehran University Publishers, Tehran.
Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S. and Rustamov, A. K. (1971). Zemnovodnye i Presmykayushchienya SSSR [Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR]. Izdatelistvo Misl, Moscow.
Bannikov, A. G., Darevsky, I. S., Ishchenko, V. G., Rustamov, A. K., and Szczerbak, N. N. (1977). Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosveshchenie, Moscow.
Basoglu, M. and Ozeti, N. (1973). Turkiye Amphibileri. Ege Univ, Bornova-Izmir.
Gasc, J. P. , Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Dolmen, D., Grossenbacher,K., Haffner, P., Lescure, J., Martens, H., Martinez Rica, J. P.,Maurin, H., Oliveira, M. E., Sofianidou, T. S., Vaith, M., and Zuiderwijk, A. (1997). Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
Kuzmin, S. L. (1995). Die Amphibien Russlands und angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.
Kuzmin, S. L. (1999). The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
Nikolsky, A. M (1936). Fauna of Russia and Adjacent Countries: Amphibians (English translation of Nikolsky, 1918, Faune de la Russie et des Pays limitrophes. Amphibiens. Académie Russe des Sciences, Petrograd, USSR). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
Nikolsky, A. M. (1906). Herpetologia Rossica. Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, Série 8, Phys.-Math, Vol. 17, Sofia, Moscow.
Nöllert, A. and Nöllert, C. (1992). Die Amphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH and Company, Stuttgart.
Tarkhnishvili, D. N. and Gokhelashvili, R. K. (1999). ''The amphibians of the Caucasus.'' Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union, 4, 1-233.
Terent'ev, P. V. and Chernov, S. A (1965). Key to Amphibians and Reptiles [of the USSR]. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
Written by Sergius L. Kuzmin (ipe51 AT yahoo.com), Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow
First submitted 1999-09-30
Edited by Vance Vredenburg, Kellie Whittaker (2008-09-19)
Species Account Citation: AmphibiaWeb 2008 Bufo verrucosissimus: Caucasian Toad <http://amphibiaweb.org/species/309> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed Feb 18, 2019.
Feedback or comments about this page.
Citation: AmphibiaWeb. 2019. <http://amphibiaweb.org> University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.
AmphibiaWeb's policy on data use.