This Bornean endemic is known from most of the hilly forests of Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia), Brunei Darussalam, and northeastern Kalimantan (Indonesia). Additional records since the previous assessment have extended this species' range into Central and South Kalimantan Provinces (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017) and Bukit Kana, Bintulu in Sarawak (Arifin et al. 2011). It is likely to occur a little more widely than current records suggest. It has been recorded from 150–1,800 m asl, but it is rare below 500 m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
This species lives along the banks of clear, small, rocky streams in primary and old secondary forests, and can be found perching on rocks either along banks or mid-stream, usually near rapids. It depends on good water quality (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018). Adults form breeding aggregations at fast flowing streams.
This species can be very common along some rocky streams. Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
The principal threat to the species is rapid clear-cutting of lowland tropical rainforest in forest concession land and for oil palm plantations, the associated sedimentation of streams (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).
It is present in several protected areas, including Kinabalu, Crocker Range, and Tawau Hills National Parks (Sabah), Gunung Mulu National Park and Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary (Sarawak), Ulu Temburong National Park (Brunei), and Kayan Mentarang National Park (Kalimantan).
Effective preservation of lowland forest is needed to conserve this species because oil palm plantations are encroaching into protected areas in Kalimantan (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). Some oil palm companies and forestry companies designate High Conservation Value areas, which is required by some financial institutions providing loans. However, not all lenders require these areas to be set aside and the habitat within the HCVs could disappear if the lender or requirements change (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).
Further research on this species' distribution, population size and trends is recommended. Taxonomic work is needed to determine if this form is a complex of more than one species.
Red List Status
Near Threatened (NT)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large population. However, since this species depends on streams in areas of undisturbed forest habitat and there is ongoing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat is declining due to widespread forest loss within its range, its population should be monitored.
We follow Matsui et al. (2007) in separating Staurois parvus from this species.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Staurois tuberilinguis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58763A114924598. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T58763A114924598.en .Downloaded on 15 November 2018