This is an endemic species of Borneo; it is widely distributed in Sabah (Malaysia), Sarawak (Malaysia), Brunei Darussalam, and northern Kalimantan (Indonesia). Additional records since the previous assessment have extended this species' range into West and Central Kalimantan Provinces (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). It is known from elevations between 90–1,000 m asl.
Habitat and Ecology
This diurnal species is most common in primary lowland rainforest where it perches on vertical rock faces alongside or in the midstream of rapids in clear, swift, rocky streams and waterfalls. It can occur in disturbed areas close to primary forest, such as streams flowing through logged areas provided that some trees remain and if the water is clear and the bottom free of silt (Inger et al. 2017). It feeds underwater on aquatic insects (I. Das pers. comm. March 2018). Males perform foot-flagging displays with either one or two legs to advertise their readiness to defend their territories (Preininger et al. 2009).
It is abundant in suitable habitat (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017, Malaysia Red List Assessment Workshop January 2018, I. Das pers. comm. March 2018). Due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
The principal threat to the species is rapid clear-cutting of lowland tropical rainforest in forest concession land and for oil palm plantations, and subsequent siltation of water bodies (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017, Malaysia Red List Assessment Workshop January 2018). It has been recorded in Sela’an Linau Forest Management Unit, a logging concession of 55,949 ha located in the Upper Baram, Sarawak, where roughly half the area was conventionally logged in the past and since 2003, a reduced impact logging (RIL) has been applied (Asad et al. 2015). It is otherwise mainly known from protected areas within Sarawak (I. Das. pers. comm. March 2018). The species is adequately protected in Sabah, as it occurs in several well-managed protected areas (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018). It is also collected for subsistence consumption outside of protected areas (P. Yambun pers. comm. January 2018).
This species has been recorded in Kinabalu, Crocker Range, and Tawau Hils National Parks, Danum Valley Conservation Area (Sabah), Gunung Mulu and Batang Ai National Parks (Sarawak), Ulu Temburong National Park (Brunei), as well as, Betung Kerihun, Kayan Mentarang and Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Parks and Long Bisai Customary Forest (Kalimantan).
Effective preservation of lowland forest is needed to conserve this species because oil palm plantations are encroaching into protected areas in Kalimantan (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). Some oil palm companies and forestry companies designate High Conservation Value areas, which is required by some financial institutions providing loans. However, not all lenders require these areas to be set aside and the habitat within the HCVs could disappear if the lender or requirements change (Indonesia Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017).
Further research on this species' distribution, population size and trends is recommended.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, and presumed large population.
Arifin et al. (2011) provided molecular evidence that this name may cover at least two cryptic species.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2018. Staurois latopalmatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T58761A114924500. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T58761A114924500.en .Downloaded on 17 December 2018