This species was previously known from its type locality of Santa Rita, in Antioquia Department, Colombia, between 1,890–1910 m asl, and two other localities in Colombia: Guatapé (Mesopotamia) and Amalfi (Anorí) all in Antioquia Department, in the central Andes, between 1,800–1,900 m asl. It is now also known from La Forzosa and Chaquiral forest in Anorí muncipality, and Costa Rica and Los Canales forest in Amalfi municipality, between 1,800–1,980 m asl (Galeano and Urbina 2004). There is no suitable habitat available to the species between these known localities. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,238 km2, and it occurs in seven threat-defined locations.
Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs in the leaf-litter of sub-Andean and Andean forests, and is restricted to primary and good secondary forest. It most likely breeds by direct development like other species in the genus.
It appears to be a common species in parts of its range. There are recent records from several localities, with the most recent from 2016 from Carmen del Viboral and Sonson.
Habitat fragmentation and loss due to the expansion of agriculture and timber extraction are the major threats to the species' habitat. Climate change may also be a threat, given that this species occurs at relatively high elevations.
The species has been recorded in Reserva La Forzosa.
Research is needed to better determine its population size and trends and the impact of the current threats on its population.
Red List Status
Listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,238 km2, it occurs in seven threat-defined locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat due to agricultural activities and timber extraction.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Rhinella macrorhina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T54878A85882082. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T54878A85882082.en .Downloaded on 17 November 2018