This species is known from the departments of Antioquia, Bolivar, Santander and Caldas in the northern portion of the three Cordilleras in Colombia, from 56–2,700 m asl (Lynch and Rueda-Almonacid 1999, Bravo-Valencia and Rivera-Correa 2011). The species has also been recorded from Falan in the northern part of Tolima Department, but the record needs confirmation. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 100,357 km2.
Habitat and Ecology
It is found mostly inside mature forests, but also occurs in areas near the forest edge (though it has not been recorded from anthropogenic habitats). It is nocturnal and occurs on vegetation alongside small streams, where it also lays eggs. It breeds via direct development.
It is a common species. However, due to ongoing decline in the quality and extent of its habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing.
Habitat loss and degradation caused by logging and agricultural and livestock farming development, including the effects of related chemicals, is the major threat to the relic patches of forest in which this species occurs (Lynch and Arroyo 2009).
This species occurs in several protected areas across its range, such as Selva de Florencia National Park, Ranita Dorada Amphibian Reserve and San Lorenzo Forest Reserve. No conservation actions are currently in place for this species.
Studies on its population size, distribution and trends, life history and ecology, and threats are needed.
Red List Status
Least Concern (LC)
This species is listed as Least Concern because it is widely distributed, common within its range, and present in protected areas.
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2017. Pristimantis penelopus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T56841A85879586. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T56841A85879586.en .Downloaded on 24 February 2019