This species is currently known from four geographical localities (the upper basin of Río Socuy, Manastara, Kunana and waters above Kusare waterfalls) on the eastern flank of the Sierra de Perijá, Zulia state, Venezuela, between 500 and 1,200 m asl (Barrio-Amorós et al. 2007, F. Rojas-Runjaic pers. comm. January 2011). The greatest distance (in a straight line) in between the two farthermost localities is about 100 km (Barrio-Amorós et al. 2007). While rare, it is considered to be widely distributed through the northern half of the Sierra de Perijá (Barrio-Amorós et al. 2007); with an estimated extent of occurrence of 444 km²; however, even though it may occur more widely, it is believed to be endemic to the Sierra de Perijá (C. Barrio-Amorós pers. comm. January 2011). The four known geographical localities are believed to cluster into three threat-defined locations (Manastara and Kunana are on the same basin, are separated by ca. 3 km in a straight line and are exposed to similar human-induced disturbances, qualifying them to be treated as a single threat-defined location; F. Rojas-Runjaic pers. comm.August 2011).
Habitat and Ecology
This species can be found in seasonal semi-deciduous forests and submontane and montane evergreen forests (Barrio-Amorós et al. 2007), including forest patches, and also in coffee plantations (F. Rojas-Runjaic pers. comm. January 2011). It is presumed to breed by direct development.
This appears to be a rare species given that there is only one specimen collected for each of the four known localities (F. Rojas-Runjaic pers. comm. January 2011), in spite of the fact that there have been several expeditions to these same localities (Barrio-Amorós et al. 2007). Its population is not considered to be severely fragmented following IUCN definitions (F. Rojas-Runjaic pers. comm. August 2011).
All four geographical localities have localized, ongoing human-induced disturbances, and while there are still large swaths of undisturbed forest in between the three threat-defined locations, there are so far no records for this frog in these undisturbed areas (F. Rojas-Runjaic pers. comm. August 2011). The upper basin of Río Socuy and area above Kusare waterfalls are being impacted by intense deforestation due to coco yam plantations, whereas Manastara and Kunana are being affected by small-scale agriculture (corn, bananas and more recently tomatoes, F. Rojas-Runjaic pers. comm. August 2011) and the recent introduction of goat farming to this area (C. Barrio-Amorós pers. comm. January 2011; F. Rojas-Runjaic pers. comm. January 2011). Traditional coffee plantations also occur in this species' range, although given that it can be found within these plantations it is possibly tolerant to this level of habitat alteration.
Two of its four known localities are found within the Parque Nacional Sierra de Perijá, but all of them exhibit human disturbances, albeit the localities outside the park more so than the ones within it (F. Rojas Runjaic pers. comm. January 2011). Enforcement of park boundaries and land is necessary, although this is a complex subject given that this area is often refuge to guerrillas, drug dealers and paramilitary groups (C. Barrio-Amorós pers. comm. January 2011). More information is needed on this species' distribution, population status and natural history.
Red List Status
Listed as Endangered given that its extent of occurrence is estimated to be around 444 km², it is known from three threat-defined locations, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat at the Sierra de Perijá. If future surveys determine that this species has a more widespread occurrence and is found in intervening pristine habitats in between known locations, and/or is found in more locations, it may merit reassessment into a lower threat category.
In the Pristimantis unistrigatus species group according to the original description (Barrio-Amorós et al. 2007).
IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group 2011. Pristimantis fasciatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T173002A6956114. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T173002A6956114.en .Downloaded on 16 November 2018