AMPHIBIAWEB
Phrynobatrachus tokba
family: Phrynobatrachidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone

 

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Taxonomic Notes

P. tokba, known only from the type locality, was determined to be a synonym of P. alticola (Rödel et al. 2005). However, the type specimen of the latter was lost, hence the synonymy was difficult to confirm.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

This species occurs in Sierra Leone, southern Guinea, Liberia, western and southwestern Côte d’Ivoire and Boi Tano Forest Reserve and Draw River Forest Reserve in Ghana. Records from Cape Three Points Forest Reserve in southwestern Ghana require confirmation (M.O. Rödel pers. comm.). It was for a long time known only from the type locality, N'Zébéla and N'Zérékoré, in southern Guinea until the synonymy with P. alticola was confirmed (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

Phrynobatrachus tokba was originally described using a series of syntypes that were mostly juveniles (MNHNP1921.144-152). Rödel et al. (2005) synonymized P. alticola with P. tokba and designated MNHNP1921.144, an adult male, as a lectotype.The colour of back, belly and extremities is uniform clear brown, and the throat is dark brown. Warts or glandular ridges are not discernible, but there are three pairs of warts on the neck, sometimes fused to smaller ridges. Webbing is absent and the toe tips are not enlarged.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

The lectotype designated by Rödel et al. (2005) had the following measurements: snout-urostyle-length 14.0; head width (measured just behind eyes) 4.5; head length 4.0; femur length 7.5, tibia length 8.0.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

It is a species found in leaf-litter of secondary forests with a broken canopy, tree fall gaps in primary forest, heavily degraded former forest (farm bush) and occasionally in moist savannah. It occurs up to 1,600m asl.(Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Population Biology

It is an extremely common species (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Reproduction

It breeds by direct development with eggs being deposited terrestrially and embryos develops from oogenic energy sources, most commonly vitellogenic yolk. In captivity it deposited large eggs rich in yolk (Rödel and Ernst, 2002). Developmental mode is independent from rainfall and open water, and it is currently not known whether parental care occurs


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Tadpole morphology

Most obvious difference between Phrynobatrachus tokba and other species of the genus is the incomplete differentiation of the tadpole’s mouthparts and the lack of external gills and a spiracle, which is the small opening to the outside of the gill chamber-breathing pore (Rödel and Ernst 2002).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

The IUCN Red List (2009) categorizes this species as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Trends

Populations of this species are stable (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Threats

Although it is somewhat adaptable, it is probably affected by agricultural expansion, logging and human settlements when these lead to serious opening up of the habitat (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Conservation Actions and Management

It probably occurs in all of the forested protected areas within its range (Rödel and Schiøtz, 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/