AMPHIBIAWEB
Phrynobatrachus graueri
family: Phrynobatrachidae
Conservation Status (definitions)
IUCN (Red List) Status Least Concern (LC)
CITES
Other International Status None
National Status None
Regional Status None

Country distribution from AmphibiaWeb's database: Congo, the Democratic Republic of the, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda

 

View distribution map using BerkeleyMapper.

   

From the Encyclopedia of Life account:

Etymology

This frog is named for the collector, Rudolf Grauer, who worked for the Zoological Museum of Berlin on an expedition led by H. Schubotz.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Distribution

This species occurs in western and southwestern Uganda (north to the Budongo Forest), eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, and western and northwestern Rwanda. There is an apparently isolated population in western Kenya, but the range is still very poorly known (Drewes et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Morphology

The original description is quite brief, mentioning the presence of an inner metatarsal tubercle, outermetatarsal tubercle, and tarsal tubercle, distinct discs on the fingers and toes, slight pedal webbing, and a first finger that is shorter than the second (Nieden, 1911). The snout is short, slightly longer than the eye. Nostrils are equidistant from the snout tip and eyes. The tympanum is distinct and equal to one-half the eye width (Channing and Howell, 2006). Loveridge (1936, Field Museum of Natural History- Zoological Series) notes than 3 phalanges are free of webbing on toe IV and 2-2.5 phalanges of free on toe V). Scapular glands are present, running from the behind the eye towards the midline.

Dorsum is dark olive above with a darker band from the nostril to forearm. A narrow or wide vertebral stripe may be present, and a pair of light lines flank the vent. The throat is black in males, and the base of the hind limb is often yellow (Channing and Howell, 2006).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Size

Males reach 23 mm and females 25 mm long (Channing and Howell, 2006). The holotype measures 22 mm (Nieden, 1911). Loveridge (1936, Bull. MCZ) notes that the largest male (MCZ A-20440) measured 22 mm and the largest female (MCZ A-20442) 28 mm, and Loveridge (1936, Field Museum of Natural History- Zoological Series) reports that males are much smaller than females.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Comparisons

Drewes and Vindum (1994) note that P. graueri is similar to P. bequaerti from which it differs in having slightly less extensive webbing on toe V.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Habitat and Ecology

It is a leaf-litter puddle frog, generally living in the interior of, and on the edge of montane forest. Its altitudinal range is not well known, but it most likely occurs above 1,000 m asl. It is often associated with swampy in forest (Drewes et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Associations

G√ľnther's green tree snake Dipsadaboa unicolor preys on this frog (Channing and Howell, 2006).

Phrynobatrachus graueri tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in western Uganda's Kibale National Park (Goldberg et al., 2007).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Population Biology

It is a common species where it occurs (Drewes et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Advertisement Call

Loveridge (1936) states that males were heard calling constantly during the day and evening. Channing and Howell (2006) describe the call as "tink-tink" or clicking.


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Reproduction

The eggs are larvae laid in water, generally in swampy situations, where the larvae develop (Drewes et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Phylogenetics

Mitochodrial sequence data from 12S rRNA, valine-tRNA, and 16S rRNA fragment, as well as combined sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear (RAG-1) genes indicate that P. graueri is the sister species of group that contains P. kinangopensis and the West African species P. tokba, P. intermedius and P. liberiensis (Zimkus et al., 2010).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

IUCN Red List Category and Justification of Conservation Status

The IUCN Red List (2010) categorizes this species as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, its tolerance of a broad range of habitats, its presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category (Drewes et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Threats

Little information is available, though it is likely to be impacted by loss of habitats for agriculture, livestock, wood extraction and human settlements (Drewes et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

Conservation Actions and Management

It occurs in Kibale and Bwindi National Parks in Uganda and Kakamega National Park in Kenya (Drewes et al., 2004).


Author: Zimkus, Breda
License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/